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42-6

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 42: PEACE FOR OUR TIME

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3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 Iam quantum consilio, quantum dicendi gravitate et copia valeat, in quo ipso inest quaedam dignitas imperatoria, vos, Quirites, hoc ipso ex loco saepe cognovistis. Fidem vero eius quantam inter socios existimari putatis, quam hostes omnes omnium generum sanctissimam iudicarint? Humanitate iam tanta est, ut difficile dictu sit, utrum hostes magis virtutem eius pugnantes timuerint an mansuetudinem victi dilexerint. Et quisquam dubitabit quin huic hoc tantum bellum permittendum sit, qui ad omnia nostrae memoriae bella conficienda divino quodam consilio natus esse videatur?

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6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Study Questions:

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 ▪    Why is valeat in the subjunctive?

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are consilio, gravitate and copia?

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 ▪    What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quam?

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 ▪    Parse generum.

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 ▪    Parse iudicarint and explain the mood.

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is humanitate?

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 ▪    What kind of clause is ut difficile dictu sit?

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 ▪    Parse dictu.

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 ▪    Parse pugnantes.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 ▪    dicendi (in the first sentence) goes with both gravitate and copia; eius (in the penultimate sentence) goes with both virtutem and mansuetudinem. What do you call this phenomenon?

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 ▪    Explain the construction governed by the preposition ad (ad omnia nostrae memoriae bella conficienda).

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 ▪    Why is videatur in the subjunctive?

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 ▪    What does Cicero mean when he says that public oratory comprises quaedam dignitas imperatoria?

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22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the rhetorical effect of Cicero’s use of

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 quantus, –a, –um and tantus, –a, –um.

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26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 Discussion Point: Cicero argues that the secret of Pompey’s ability to bring wars to a successful conclusion derives in large part from his ‘soft qualities’

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 – the reliability of his ‘word’ (fides) and his human kindness (humanitas). Is that a principle that holds true elsewhere in history?

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gravitas, –atis, f. weight, heaviness; dignity, importance, gravity
copia, –ae, f. abundant power, wealth, riches, fullness,copiousness, multitude, abundance
valeo, –ere, –ui, –itum to be strong; to have power, force, influence
to avail, prevail, be strong, effective
insum, inesse, infui to be in or upon; to be contained in, to be in,
to belong to, to appertain to
dignitas, –atis, f. dignity, greatness, grandeur, authority, rank
imperatorius, –a, –um of or belonging to a general
cognosco, –ere, cognovi, cognitum to become thoroughly acquainted with,
to perceive, understand
genus, –eris, n. birth, descent, origin; kind, type, character
sanctus, –a, –um sacred, inviolable
mansuetudo, –inis, f. mildness, gentleness, clemency
diligo, –ere, dilexi, dilectum to value/esteem highly, love
permitto, –ere, permisi, permissum to let go through; to give up, intrust,surrender, commit; to give leave, let, allow,suffer, grant, permit
quin (conjunction + subjunctive) that
memoria, –ae, f. memory, recollection
the period of recollection, time
nascor, nasci, natus sum to be born, to rise, to arise, to spring forth

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33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 43: RUMOUR AND RENOWN: POMPEY’S AUCTORITAS

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35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 Et quoniam auctoritas quoque in bellis administrandis multum atque in imperio militari valet, certe nemini dubium est quin ea re idem ille imperator plurimum possit. Vehementer autem pertinere ad bella administranda, quid hostes, quid socii de imperatoribus nostris existiment, quis ignorat, cum sciamus homines in tantis rebus, ut aut contemnant aut metuant, aut oderint aut ament, opinione non minus et fama quam aliqua ratione certa commoveri? Quod igitur nomen umquam in orbe terrarum clarius fuit? cuius res gestae pares? de quo homine vos, id quod maxime facit auctoritatem, tanta et tam praeclara iudicia fecistis?

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38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 Study Questions:

39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 ▪    Explain the grammar and syntax of multum and plurimum.

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is ea re?

41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by ignorat.

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of existiment.

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 ▪    What kind of clause does ut introduce?

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are opinione, fama, and ratione?

45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by sciamus.

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 ▪    Parse clarius.

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 ▪    What verb form has to be supplied in the clause cuius res gestae pares?

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 ▪    What is auctoritas? How does it differ from potestas or imperium? Is Cicero right to claim that the reputation/prestige of the general matters in warfare?

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51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 Stylistic Appreciation: In the indirect statement dependent on sciamus Cicero switches into an ‘anthropological register’ with a statement about how humans behave in extreme situations. What is the rhetorical effect of this switch?

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54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 Discussion Point: Can you think of figures in your life who are formally invested with power of one sort or another because of their social role or office (= potestas) but have little or no auctoritas (‘commanding respect’) – or, conversely, of individuals who do not possess any formal powers but nevertheless command respect and obedience? How would you explain this?

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quoniam since, seeing that, inasmuch as, because
quoque in the same way, too, likewise, no less
valeo, –ere, –ui, –itum to be powerful, be well, be potent; to have theability or power (with infinitive or internalaccusative)
dubius, –a, –um hesitant, undecided, doubtful, uncertain
quin (conjunction + subjunctive) that
possum, posse, potui to be able (to); to have power, influence, orimportance
vehementer (adverb) with great force, violently, firmly
pertineo, –ere, –ui to extend, reach; pertain to, be a concern
contemno, –nere, –psi, –ptum to regard with contempt, look down on; todisregard
metuo, –ere, –i to fear, be afraid
odi, –isse to hate, dislike
opinio, –onis, f. opinion, belief; fancy, imagination
fama, –ae, f. news, tidings; rumour, hearsay;
public opinion; fame, glory, renown
commoveo, –overe, –ovi, –otum to move, shake, agitate; to interest, stimulate,prompt, strike
clarus, –a, –um loud, sonorous; bright, shining; celebrated,famous
par, paris matching, equal, similar, like
praeclarus, –a, –um very clear/bright; excellent, famous,celebrated

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60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 44: CASE STUDY I: THE SOCIO-ECONOMICS OF POMPEY’S

61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 AUCTORITAS

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63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 An vero ullam usquam esse oram tam desertam putatis, quo non illius diei fama pervaserit, cum universus populus Romanus referto foro completisque omnibus templis, ex quibus hic locus conspici potest, unum sibi ad commune omnium gentium bellum Cn. Pompeium imperatorem depoposcit? Itaque, ut plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem, quantum auctoritas valeat in bello, ab eodem Cn. Pompeio omnium rerum egregiarum exempla sumantur: qui quo die a vobis maritimo bello praepositus est imperator, tanta repente vilitas annonae ex summa inopia et caritate rei frumentariae consecuta est unius hominis spe ac nomine, quantum vix in summa ubertate agrorum diuturna pax efficere potuisset.

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66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 Study Questions:

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68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 ▪    oram: why does Cicero use this particular word as opposed to, say, regionem? What kind of implications does it have?

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 ▪    What kind of construction does putatis introduce?

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 ▪    Specify and explain the mood of pervaserit.

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 ▪    What kind of construction are referto foro and completis omnibus templis?

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 ▪    hic locus: what place in Rome is Cicero talking about?

73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 ▪    What kind of clause is ut plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem?

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 ▪    What kind of clause is quantum auctoritas valeat in bello?

75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 ▪    Specify and explain the mood of sumantur.

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of qui.

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is a vobis?

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 ▪    On what words does the genitive unius hominis depend and what kinds (! plural intended) of genitive is it?

79 Leave a comment on paragraph 79 0 ▪    What kind of ablatives are spe and nomine?

80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 ▪    Parse potuisset and explain the mood.

81 Leave a comment on paragraph 81 0 ▪    illius diei fama: how does Cicero convey the atmosphere in Rome on this day?

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an introducing direct questions with a notion of
surprise/indignation: ‘can it really be that…?’
usquam in any place, anywhere
pervado, –dere, –si, –sum to cross, traverse; pervade, penetrate
refercio, –cire, –si, –tum to cram or stuff full
forum, –i, n. the forum
compleo, –ere, –evi, –etum to fill, to occupy a space, throng
conspicio, –icere, –exi, –ectum to see, stare at, watch, discern
deposco, –scere, –posci to demand (peremptorily), ask for
confirmo, –are, –avi, –atum to strengthen, corroborate
egregius, –ia, –ium outstanding, excellent, splendid, pre-eminent
sumo, –mere, –mpsi, –mptum to take, put on, seize, get, procure
maritimus, –a, –um relating to the sea, naval
praepono, –onere, –osui, –ositum to place in front, set in authority over,
put in charge of
repente (adverb) without warning, suddenly; in an instant
vilitas, –atis, f. lowness of price, cheapness
annona, –ae, f. (annual) marketable output, produce;
the supply of corn; corn, food
inopia, –ae, f. lack of wealth, poverty; dearth;
shortage, scarcity
caritas, –atis, f. dearness, high price; love, affection, esteem
res frumentaria the corn-supply
consequor, –qui, –cutus to go or come after, to follow
vix (adverb) with difficulty, hardly, barely, just
ubertas, –atis, f. productiveness, fruitfulness, fertility,abundance

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86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the ways in which Cicero relates Pompey

87 Leave a comment on paragraph 87 0 to the Roman commonwealth (and the world as a whole) with reference to the comprehensive, superlative, and extreme expressions in the paragraph (e.g. ullam … oram, tam desertam, universus populus Romanus, omnibus templis, ad commune omnium gentium bellum, omnium rerum egregiarum exempla, tanta vilitas, ex summa inopia et caritate, in summa ubertate agrorum, diuturna pax).

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90 Leave a comment on paragraph 90 0 Discussion Point: Explore the correlation between the appointment of Pompey as general in the war against the pirates and the ensuing drop in the price of corn in Rome. Why is this ‘cause-and-effect’ relationship between a political decision and its economic consequences such a brilliant illustration of Pompey’s auctoritas?

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93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0 45: CASE STUDY II: POMPEY’S AUCTORITAS AND PSYCHO- LOGICAL WARFARE

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95 Leave a comment on paragraph 95 0 Iam accepta in Ponto calamitate ex eo proelio, de quo vos paulo ante invitus admonui, cum socii pertimuissent, hostium opes animique crevissent, satis firmum praesidium provincia non haberet, amisissetis Asiam, Quirites, nisi ad ipsum discrimen eius temporis divinitus Cn. Pompeium ad eas regiones fortuna populi Romani attulisset. Huius adventus et Mithridatem insolita inflatum victoria continuit et Tigranem magnis copiis minitantem Asiae retardavit. Et quisquam dubitabit, quid virtute perfecturus sit, qui tantum auctoritate perfecerit? aut quam facile imperio atque exercitu socios et vectigalia conservaturus sit, qui ipso nomine ac rumore defenderit?

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98 Leave a comment on paragraph 98 0 Study Questions:

99 Leave a comment on paragraph 99 0 ▪    What kind of construction is accepta in Ponto calamitate?

100 Leave a comment on paragraph 100 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is paulo?

101 Leave a comment on paragraph 101 0 ▪    Parse pertimuissent, crevissent and haberet.

102 Leave a comment on paragraph 102 0 ▪    Specify and explain the mood and tense of amisissetis and attulisset.

103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0 ▪    What form is divinitus? What is the subject of the nisi-clause?

104 Leave a comment on paragraph 104 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is magnis copiis?

105 Leave a comment on paragraph 105 0 ▪    Parse minitantem.

106 Leave a comment on paragraph 106 0 ▪    What kind of clauses do quid and quam introduce?

107 Leave a comment on paragraph 107 0 ▪    What forms are perfecturus sit and conservaturus sit?

108 Leave a comment on paragraph 108 0 ▪    Specify and explain the mood of perfecerit and defenderit.

109 Leave a comment on paragraph 109 0 ▪    What are the accusative objects of defenderit?

110 Leave a comment on paragraph 110 0 ▪    Explore how Cicero represents the complementary impact of the virtus and the auctoritas of Pompey.

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113 Leave a comment on paragraph 113 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does the syntax of the first sentence reinforce

114 Leave a comment on paragraph 114 0 Cicero’s themes and rhetorical agenda?

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117 Leave a comment on paragraph 117 0 Discussion Point: What entity/force does Cicero refer to with fortuna populi

118 Leave a comment on paragraph 118 0 Romani?

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accipio, –ipere, –epi, –eptum to receive, acquire, get
proelium, -(i)i, n. battle
paulum, –i, n. a small amount, little, a little bit
invitus, –a, –um unwilling, reluctant
admoneo, –ere, –ui, –itum to give a reminder to, to remind (of or that)
pertimesco, –escere, –ui to become very scared, take excessive fright
ops, opis, f. power, ability
plural: domination, influence, resources
animus, –i, m. mind; courage, spirit, morale
cresco, –ere, crevi, cretum to be born, arise; develop, grow, increase
amitto, –ittere, –isi, –issum to send away, dismiss; to forfeit, lose
discrimen, –inis, n. a separating line, a point in which things differ; adecisive stage, critical point, crisis
divinitus (adverb) by divine agency or inspiration, providentially
insolitus, –a, –um unusual, unfamiliar
inflo, –are, –avi, –atum to fill with air, puff out, inflate; cause to swell
minitor, –ari, –atus (+ dative) to threaten (somebody/something)
retardo, –are, –avi, –atum to hinder the progress of, inhibit
dubito, –are, –avi, –atum to be in doubt, be uncertain
vectigal, –alis, n. revenue
rumor, –oris, m. noise, rumour, reputation, esteem

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124 Leave a comment on paragraph 124 0 46: AUCTORITAS SUPREME

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126 Leave a comment on paragraph 126 0 Age vero illa res quantam declarat eiusdem hominis apud hostes populi Romani auctoritatem, quod ex locis tam longinquis tamque diversis tam brevi tempore omnes huic se uni dediderunt: quod a communi Cretensium legati, cum in eorum insula noster imperator exercitusque esset, ad Cn. Pompeium in ultimas prope terras venerunt eique se omnes Cretensium civitates dedere velle dixerunt! Quid? idem iste Mithridates nonne ad eundem Cn. Pompeium legatum usque in Hispaniam misit? eum quem Pompeius legatum semper iudicavit, ii quibus erat molestum ad eum potissimum esse missum, speculatorem quam legatum iudicari maluerunt. Potestis igitur iam constituere, Quirites, hanc auctoritatem, multis postea rebus gestis magnisque vestris iudiciis amplificatam, quantum apud illos reges, quantum apud exteras nationes valituram esse existimetis.

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129 Leave a comment on paragraph 129 0 Study Questions:

130 Leave a comment on paragraph 130 0 ▪    What word does quantam agree with?

131 Leave a comment on paragraph 131 0 ▪    Parse communi and legati.

132 Leave a comment on paragraph 132 0 ▪    Who is the noster imperator?

133 Leave a comment on paragraph 133 0 ▪    Which words does the –que after ei connect?

134 Leave a comment on paragraph 134 0 ▪    Parse ei.

135 Leave a comment on paragraph 135 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of se and omnes … civitates.

136 Leave a comment on paragraph 136 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement dependent on existimetis.

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139 Leave a comment on paragraph 139 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the stylistic devices Cicero uses to highlight Pompey’s auctoritas?

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142 Leave a comment on paragraph 142 0 Discussion Point: If you were a member of one of Rome’s established senatorial families, how would you react to Cicero’s rhetoric in this paragraph?

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declaro, –are, –avi, –atum to make known, declare, tell, reveal; testify to, show
dedo, –ere, –idi, –itum to yield possession of, give up, surrender
commune, –is, n. property of rights held in common;commonwealth, state, collective body
usque (ad/in) (adverb) all the way (to), right up (to), as far (as)
molestus, –a, –um troublesome, annoying, vexing
potissimum (adverb) especially, above all
speculator, –oris, m. a spy
constituo, –uere, –ui, –utum to set up, establish, locate; arrange, agree on
valeo, –ere, –ui, –itum to have strength, be powerful, have weight

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