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37-41

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 1 37: SPQR CONFIDENTIAL

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3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 Quem enim imperatorem possumus ullo in numero putare, cuius in exercitu centuriatus veneant atque venierint? quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare, qui pecuniam ex aerario depromptam ad bellum administrandum aut propter cupiditatem provinciae magistratibus diviserit aut propter avaritiam Romae in quaestu reliquerit? Vestra admurmuratio facit, Quirites, ut agnoscere videamini, qui haec fecerint: ego autem nomino neminem; quare irasci mihi nemo poterit, nisi qui ante de se voluerit confiteri. Itaque propter hanc avaritiam imperatorum quantas calamitates, quocumque ventum est, nostri exercitus ferant, quis ignorat?

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6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Study Questions:

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 ▪    Parse centuriatus.

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of veneant atque venierint.

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 ▪    What is the main verb of the sentence quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare…? (NB: it needs to be supplied from the previous sentence.) What construction does it govern?

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of diviserit and reliquerit.

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 ▪    What case is Romae?

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 ▪    Parse, and explain the syntax of, videamini.

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 ▪    Parse voluerit.

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 1 ▪    What weirdo form is ventum est?

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of ferant.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 ▪    Vestra admurmuratio: how do you explain Cicero’s reference to unrest in the audience? Did he anticipate this murmur of outraged assent when drafting the speech? Did he add this bit after delivery, before disseminating the speech in writing – and how can we be sure that the admurmuratio actually happened? What is the effect of having a gesture to the original performance-context in the written version of the speech?

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 ▪    Can you think of contemporary figures that (don’t) live up to Cicero’s injunction that public officials ought to magnum et amplum de re publica cogitare?

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20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero generate an atmosphere of outraged collusion with his audience?

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23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 Discussion Point: What are the mechanisms by which ancient and modern governments ensure the proper use of public funds by elected officials? What laws against bribery and embezzlement existed in ancient Rome – as compared to contemporary Britain?

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ullo in numero of any account/in any esteem
centuriatus, –us, m. the office of centurion
veneo, –ire, –ii (-itum) [used as passive of vendo:]
to be sold
Not to be confused with:
venio, venire, veni, ventum to come
amplus, –a, –um great, wide, spacious; glorious, magnificent
aerarium, –i, n. (Rome’s) public treasury
depromo, –ere, –prompsi, –promptum to draw out/forth, fetch
divido, –ere, –visi, –visum to separate, divide; distribute, apportion
quaestus, –us, m. acquisition, profit, advantage
pecuniam in quaestu relinquere to let out money at interest
admurmuratio, –onis, f. a murmuring, murmur (here: ofdisapproval)
agnosco, –noscere, –novi, –notum to know well; declare, announce; recognize
nomino, –are, –avi, –atum to call by name, name; mention, accuse
irascor, irasci, iratus to be angry (at)
(most frequently, as here, with dative)
confiteor, confiteri, confessus to acknowledge, confess, avow

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29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 38: OF LOCUSTS AND LEECHES

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31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 Itinera, quae per hosce annos in Italia per agros atque oppida civium Romanorum nostri imperatores fecerint, recordamini: tum facilius statuetis, quid apud exteras nationes fieri existimetis. Utrum plures arbitramini per hosce annos militum vestrorum armis hostium urbes an hibernis sociorum civitates esse deletas? Neque enim potest exercitum is continere imperator, qui se ipse non continet, neque severus esse in iudicando, qui alios in se severos esse iudices non vult.

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34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 Study Questions:

35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 ▪    What kind of clause does quae introduce?

36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 ▪    Parse recordamini and arbitramini.

37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 ▪    Parse facilius.

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 ▪    Identify and explain the tenses and moods (plural!) of statuetis and existimetis.

39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 ▪    What nouns (plural!) does plures agree with?

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 ▪    What do you call the stylistic device on display in in iudicando … iudices?

41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 ▪    Why could hosting a Roman winter-quarter prove so disastrous for allied communities? (Compare and contrast with modern-day protests by local

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 communities against the closure of military bases in their region.)

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 ▪    What is the timeframe of per hosce annos?

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45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 Stylistic Appreciation: In the utrum… an… clause, how do the elements in the utrum-part match up with the elements in the an-part?

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48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 Discussion Point: How does Cicero construe the relationship between

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 ‘army’ and ‘general’ in this paragraph?

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53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 iter, itineris, n.                                      journey, march

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 -ce (hosce)                                             a deictic particle, usually ‘enclitic’ ((‘enclitic’ is a linguistic term deriving from the Greek enklinein = ‘to lean on’; it is a word that does not stand on its own so gets attached to (‘leans on’) the preceding one.))

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recordor, –ari, –atus to think over, be mindful of, recollect
statuo, –uere, –ui, –utum to place, fix, stand; to establish, decide, uphold
exter, extera, exterum outside, external, foreign
existimo, –are, –avi, –atum to value, esteem; form an opinion, judge; think
utrum… an (introducing a disjunctive question, the second
alternative introduced by an): whether… or…
hiberna, –orum, n. pl. winter encampment, winter quarters
contineo, –inere, –inui, –entum to hold together, link, connect; keep within;
to keep under control

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60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 39: POMPEY THE PEACEFUL, OR: IMPERIALISM WITH GLOVES

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62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 Hic miramur hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris, cuius legiones sic in Asiam pervenerint, ut non modo manus tanti exercitus, sed ne vestigium quidem cuiquam pacato nocuisse dicatur? Iam vero quem ad modum milites hibernent cotidie sermones ac litterae perferuntur. Non modo ut sumptum faciat in militem nemini vis adfertur, sed ne cupienti quidem cuiquam permittitur. Hiemis enim, non avaritiae perfugium maiores nostri in sociorum atque amicorum tectis esse voluerunt.

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65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 Study Questions:

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 ▪    What is hic? (Hint: it’s not the demonstrative pronoun.)

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 ▪    What case, number and gender is cuius? To whom does it refer?

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of pervenerint.

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 ▪    What declension (and what gender ) are manus and exercitus? What case is manus in, what case exercitus?

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 ▪    What type of clause does ut introduce?

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 ▪    What construction does dicatur govern?

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 ▪    What kind of clause is quem ad modum milites hibernent?

73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 ▪    Both hiemis and avaritiae are genitives dependent on refugium: but what type ofgenitive is hiemis, what type avaritiae?

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 ▪    How many indirect statements can you find in this section? Can you identify the verbs introducing them, and find their subject accusatives?

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77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the rhetorical devices Cicero uses to emphasise the good behaviour of Pompey’s forces in Asia?

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80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 Discussion Point: Cicero ends this section by invoking the normative force of the ancestors. Are ‘older generations’ by definition ethically superior – in ancient Rome and elsewhere in history?

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miror, –ari, –atus to be surprised, amazed, bewildered; marvel
manus, –us, f. hand; in the plural: band, troop
ne… quidem not even [negating the enclosed word]
vestigium, -(i)i, n. footprint, track
pacatus, –a, –um tranquil, peaceable, disposed to peace
paco, –are, –avi, –atum to impose a settlement on, bring undercontrol, subdue
noceo, –ere, –ui, –itum (regularly with dative): to harm, injure
iam vero further, now, besides
quem ad modum/quemadmodum (interrogative) in what way? how?
(relative) in the manner in which
hiberno, –are, –avi, –atum to spend the winter (esp. of troops)
cotidie (adverb) every day, daily
sermo, –onis, m. speech, talk; conversation, dialogue; gossip
litterae, –arum, f. letters
perfero, –rre, pertuli, perlatum to carry/convey to, deliver; tolerate, endure
sumptus, –us, m. expenditure, outlay, expense
sumptum facere to expend money
hiems/hiemps, –mis, f. winter
avaritia, ae, f. greed, avarice, rapacity
perfugium, -(i)i, n. a place of refuge, shelter
tectum, –i, n. roof, ceiling; house, dwelling

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86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 40: NO SIGHT-SEEING OR SOUVENIRS FOR THE PERFECT GENERAL

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88 Leave a comment on paragraph 88 0 Age vero ceteris in rebus qua ille sit temperantia, considerate. Unde illam tantam celeritatem et tam incredibilem cursum inventum putatis? Non enim illum eximia vis remigum aut ars inaudita quaedam gubernandi aut venti aliqui novi tam celeriter in ultimas terras pertulerunt, sed eae res, quae ceteros remorari solent, non retardarunt: non avaritia ab instituto cursu ad praedam aliquam devocavit, non libido ad voluptatem, non amoenitas ad delectationem, non nobilitas urbis ad cognitionem, non denique labor ipse ad quietem; postremo signa et tabulas ceteraque ornamenta Graecorum oppidorum, quae ceteri tollenda esse arbitrantur, ea sibi ille ne visenda quidem existimavit.

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91 Leave a comment on paragraph 91 0 Study Questions:

92 Leave a comment on paragraph 92 0 ▪    Can you think of any reasons why the imperative form Age is singular whilst considerate (equally imperative) is plural?

93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0 ▪    What kind of clause is ceteris in rebus qua ille sit temperantia?

94 Leave a comment on paragraph 94 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is qua… temperantia?

95 Leave a comment on paragraph 95 0 ▪    What kind of clause does putatis introduce?

96 Leave a comment on paragraph 96 0 ▪    Parse retardarunt. What is its accusative object?

97 Leave a comment on paragraph 97 0 ▪    What do you think of Cicero’s use of synonyms such as voluptatem and delectationem?Do they complement each other (and if so how) or do they give the text a bloated wordiness?

98 Leave a comment on paragraph 98 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by arbitrantur.

99 Leave a comment on paragraph 99 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of sibi.

100 Leave a comment on paragraph 100 0 ▪    How does the explanation of Pompey’s speed Cicero gives in this paragraph affect our understanding of his previous praise of Pompey’s speed as a facet of his martial prowess?

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103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Explore the rhetorical effect of negations in the passage.

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106 Leave a comment on paragraph 106 1 Discussion Point: Describe and discuss the Romans’ attitude to Greece that comes through in this paragraph. How does Pompey differ from the ceteri?

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age (vero)! (a call for attention🙂 come!
unde from which place, whence, where
cursus, –us, m. the action of running; charge, onrush, motion,
movement, speed
journey, voyage, passage
invenio, –enire, –eni, –entum to encounter, meet; to find, discover, come by
eximius, –a, –um outstanding, exceptional, remarkable
remex, –igis, m. oarsman, rower
remoror, –ari, –atus to wait, linger, dally; delay, hold up
retardo, –are, –avi, –atum to hinder the progress of, hold up, inhibit
devoco, –are, –avi, –atum to call down; to call away, summon, divert
amoenitas, –atis, f. allurement, attraction, charm; pleasant spot
delectatio, –onis, f. pleasure, delight
nobilitas, –atis, f. renown, celebrity, distinction; nobility
cognitio, –onis, f. the act of getting to know, study, investigation
quies, –etis, f. rest, repose, relaxation
signum, –i, n. sign; (here) statue
tabula, –ae, f. board, plank, panel of wood; writing-tablet;
painting
tollo, –ere, sustuli, sublatum to pick up, carry off, remove, eliminate
ne… quidem not even
viso, –ere, –i to go and look, view, visit

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112 Leave a comment on paragraph 112 0 41: SAINT POMPEY

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114 Leave a comment on paragraph 114 0 Itaque omnes nunc in iis locis Cn. Pompeium sicut aliquem non ex hac urbe missum, sed de caelo delapsum intuentur; nunc denique incipiunt credere, fuisse homines Romanos hac quondam continentia, quod iam nationibus exteris incredibile ac falso memoriae proditum videbatur; nunc imperii vestri splendor illis gentibus lucem adferre coepit; nunc intellegunt non sine causa maiores suos tum, cum ea temperantia magistratus habebamus, servire populo Romano quam imperare aliis maluisse. Iam vero ita faciles aditus ad eum privatorum, ita liberae querimoniae de aliorum iniuriis esse dicuntur, ut is qui dignitate principibus excellit, facilitate infimis par esse videatur.

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117 Leave a comment on paragraph 117 0 Study Questions:

118 Leave a comment on paragraph 118 0 ▪    Parse intuentur.

119 Leave a comment on paragraph 119 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of the infinitives credere and fuisse.

120 Leave a comment on paragraph 120 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is hac … continentia?

121 Leave a comment on paragraph 121 0 ▪    What is the antecedent of quod?

122 Leave a comment on paragraph 122 0 ▪    Identify the words in the nominative in the clause quod iam nationibus exteris incredibile ac falso memoriae proditum videbatur.

123 Leave a comment on paragraph 123 0 ▪    Parse falso and memoriae: why can’t falso modify memoriae?

124 Leave a comment on paragraph 124 0 ▪    Who is the subject implied in intellegunt?

125 Leave a comment on paragraph 125 0 ▪    Explain the tense of videbatur.

126 Leave a comment on paragraph 126 0 ▪    In the cum-clause cum ea temperantia magistratus habebamus: who is the subject? What kind of ablative is ea temperantia? What case is magistratus?

127 Leave a comment on paragraph 127 0 ▪    What kind of ablatives are dignitate and facilitate?

128 Leave a comment on paragraph 128 0 ▪    What is the significance of the word delapsum? What impression does it give of Pompey?

129 Leave a comment on paragraph 129 0 ▪    Who are the ancestors of the Eastern people who preferred to be subject to the Romans to ruling others?

130 Leave a comment on paragraph 130 0 ▪    Discuss the way in which Cicero intertwines Pompey’s dignitas (‘social rank and standing in the community’) and his facilitas (‘accessibility’) in the last sentence of

131 Leave a comment on paragraph 131 0 the paragraph: why does he stress facilitas so much?

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134 Leave a comment on paragraph 134 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss how Cicero employs the temporal adverbs

135 Leave a comment on paragraph 135 0 quondam, iam and nunc in his argument.

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138 Leave a comment on paragraph 138 0 Discussion Point: Can you think of contemporary public figures who combine dignitas with facilitas?

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intueor, –eri, –itus to look at, watch; observe, see; consider;
to look upon, regard as
delabor, –bi, –psus to fall, drop; descend, glide down; slip
incipio, –ipere, –epi, –eptum to begin
falsus, –a, –um erroneous, untrue; incorrect, wrong
prodo, –ere, –idi, –itum (here) to hand down, transmit
splendor, –oris, m. brightness, brilliance, radiance; lustre; glory
coepi, –isse, –tum to begin
malo, –lle, –lui to wish rather, prefer
aditus, –us, m. approach, access, right of entry
privatus, –i, m. one who holds no public office; individual
querimonia, –ae, f. an expression of grievance, complaint, protest
iniuria, –ae, f. unlawful conduct, injustice, injury
excello, –ere, –ui to be pre-eminent, surpass, excel
facilitas, –atis, f. ease, facility, indulgence
infimus, –a, –um lowest in position, most undistinguished,
humblest
par, paris matching, equal, similar, like

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