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32-6

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 32: THE PIRATES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

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3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 Quam provinciam tenuistis a praedonibus liberam per hosce annos? quod vectigal vobis tutum fuit? quem socium defendistis? cui praesidio classibus vestris fuistis? quam multas existimatis insulas esse desertas, quam multas aut metu relictas aut a praedonibus captas urbes esse sociorum? Sed quid ego longinqua commemoro? Fuit hoc quondam, fuit proprium populi Romani, longe a domo bellare, et propugnaculis imperii sociorum fortunas, non sua tecta defendere. Sociis ego nostris mare per hos annos clausum fuisse dicam, cum exercitus vestri numquam Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint? Qui ad vos ab exteris nationibus venirent captos querar, cum legati populi Romani redempti sint? Mercatoribus tutum mare non fuisse dicam, cum duodecim secures in praedonum potestatem pervenerint?

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6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Study Questions:

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of liberam.

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 ▪    What kind of dative is vobis?

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 ▪    What kind of dative is cui?

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 ▪    What kind of dative is praesidio?

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of classibus vestris.

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 ▪    Explain the difference between the quam in quam provinciam and the quam in quam multas.

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 ▪    Identify the components of the indirect statement introduced by existimatis.

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is metu?

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 ▪    Parse longinqua.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is propugnaculis?

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of sociis … nostris.

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is Brundisio?

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is hieme summa?

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 ▪    Why is venirent in the imperfect subjunctive?

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 ▪    What is the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by querar?

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 ▪    legati populi Romani: which noun is in the nominative plural, which in the genitive singular?

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 ▪    Try to imagine what an urbs capta entails.

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 ▪    Explore the ways in which Cicero plays with ‘centre’ (Rome) and ‘periphery’ in this paragraph.

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 ▪    What does Cicero mean when he says that ‘twelve axes’ (duodecim secures) fell into the hands of the pirates?

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 ▪    With reference to phrases that refer to aggressive or defensive military measures, try to describe the picture of Rome’s imperial presence in the Mediterranean that Cicero is painting here.

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vectigal, –alis, n. revenue
tutus, –a, –um safe, secure, protected from danger
praesidium, -(i)i, n. defence, protection
classis, –is, f. a naval force, fleet; a class or grade
metus, –us, m. (f.) fear, alarm, apprehension
longinquus, –a, –um situated at a distance, far-off, remote
commemoro, –are, –avi, –atum to recall, mention, relate
quondam (adv.) formerly, in ancient days; some day
proprius, –a, –um one’s own, personal, peculiar to, special
bello, –are, –avi, –atum to wage war, fight
propugnaculum, –i, n. a bulwark, rampart, defence
fortuna, –ae, f. fortune, chance, prosperity
in plural: wealth, property
tectum, –i, n. roof; house, dwelling
claudo, –dere, –si, –sum to close, shut; blockade
legatus, –i, m. an ambassador, envoy; legate
redimo, –imere, –emi, –emptum to buy back, ransom, rescue
mercator, –oris, m. merchant, trader
duodecim (indeclinable) twelve
securis, –is, f. an axe
pervenio, –enire, –eni, –entum to come to, arrive at, to pass into thehands of, to come under the control of

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31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 Stylistic Appreciation: The paragraph contains nine rhetorical questions.

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 Can you identify sets and patterns?

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35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 Discussion Point: How would you define the way in which Cicero interacts with his audience in this paragraph?

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38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 33: PIRATES ANTE PORTAS!

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40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 Cnidum aut Colophonem aut Samum, nobilissimas urbes, innumerabilesque alias captas esse commemorem, cum vestros portus atque eos portus, quibus vitam et spiritum ducitis, in praedonum fuisse potestate sciatis? An vero ignoratis portum Caietae celeberrimum ac plenissimum navium inspectante praetore a praedonibus esse direptum? ex Miseno autem eius ipsius liberos, qui cum praedonibus antea bellum gesserat, a praedonibus esse sublatos? Nam quid ego Ostiense incommodum atque illam labem atque ignominiam rei publicae querar, cum prope inspectantibus vobis classis ea, cui consul populi Romani praepositus esset, a praedonibus capta atque oppressa est? Pro di immortales! tantamne unius hominis incredibilis ac divina virtus tam brevi tempore lucem adferre rei publicae potuit, ut vos, qui modo ante ostium Tiberinum classem hostium videbatis, nunc nullam intra Oceani ostium praedonum navem esse audiatis?

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43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 Study Questions:

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of commemorem.

45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusatives and the infinitives of the indirect statements introduced by commemorem, sciatis, and ignoratis.

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 ▪    What does Cicero mean by vitam et spiritum?

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 ▪    What construction are inspectante praetore and inspectantibus vobis?

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 ▪    Look at the verbs captas esse, esse direptum, esse sublatos, capta (sc. est), oppressa est. What do you notice about their voice? Is there a rationale for Cicero’s ‘choice of voice’ here? How does it change after pro di immortales!?

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 ▪    cui consul…praepositus est: what case is cui and why? What is the antecedent?

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 ▪    Does Cicero choose his moment for the exclamation pro di immortales well?

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 ▪    What noun does tantam(ne) agree with? What is the rhetorical effect of its placement in the sentence?

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 ▪    Explore the tension between ‘mortal’ and ‘immortal’ in the phrase unius hominis incredibilis ac divina virtus.

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 ▪    What is the rhetorical effect of Cicero’s relentless references to pirates in this paragraph (in praedonum … potestate; a praedonibus; cum praedonibus; a praedonibus; a praedonibus; nullam … praedonum navem)?

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 ▪    Discuss Cicero’s reference to seeing and spectatorship in this paragraph.

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 ▪    Can you place the locations Cicero mentions here (Cnidus, Colophon, Samos, Caieta, Misenum, Ostia, the straits of Gibraltar ) on a map? Is there a logic to the order in which they occur?

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Cnidus, –i, m. Cnidus (a town in the extreme South-West ofCaria)
Colophon, –onis, m. Colophon (a city in Ionia)
Samos, –i, f.- acc. –um or –on Samos (an island off the coast of Asia Minor )
spiritus, –us, m. the action of breathing, respiration;
breath (of life)
scio, –ire, –ii/-ivi, –itum to know, be aware of
ignoro, –are, –avi, –atum to have no knowledge of, be ignorant of
celeber, –bris, –bre much used, busy, frequented;
famed, celebrated, distinguished
inspecto, –are, –avi, –atum to look at, watch, observe; look on
diripio, –ipere, –ipui, –eptum to pull to pieces, tear to shreds
to seize as plunder, loot
liberi, –um (or –orum), m. pl. sons and daughters, children
tollo, –ere, sustuli, sublatum to pick up, take away, remove, carry off
Ostiensis, –is, –e of or belonging to Ostia
incommodum, –i, n. detriment, harm, disadvantage;
misfortune, trouble, set-back
labes, –is, f. disaster, defect;
stain upon honour or reputation, disgrace
ignominia, –ae, f. disgrace
queror, –ri, –stus to regret, complain, grumble, protest
prope in close proximity, near by;
(modifying a hyperbole): almost, pretty well
praepono, –onere, –osui, –ositum to place in front; to put in charge of
modo (adverb) only recently
ostium, -(i)i, n. a door, aperture, opening; mouth
ostium Oceani the strait of Gibraltar

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62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero maintain the supernatural

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 colouring he introduces in his discourse with the exclamation pro di immortales! in the subsequent sentence?

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66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 Discussion Point: Why does Cicero refer to the pirates’ attack on Ostia as a national disgrace? What qualifies as a ‘national disgrace’ nowadays?

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69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 Atque haec qua celeritate gesta sint, quamquam videtis, tamen a me in

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 dicendo praetereunda non sunt. Quis enim umquam aut obeundi negotii aut consequendi quaestus studio tam brevi tempore tot loca adire, tantos cursus conficere potuit, quam celeriter Cn. Pompeio duce tanti belli impetus navigavit? qui nondum tempestivo ad navigandum mari Siciliam adiit, Africam exploravit, in Sardiniam cum classe venit, atque haec tria frumentaria subsidia rei publicae firmissimis praesidiis classibusque munivit.

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73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 Study Questions:

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 ▪    What kind of clause does qua introduce?

75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is a me? What is unusual about it?

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 ▪    Explain the construction Cn. Pompeio duce.

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of qui (in qui nondum…).

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of navigandum.

79 Leave a comment on paragraph 79 0 ▪    For most nouns in the fourth declension, the nominative singular, the genitive singular, the nominative plural, and the accusative plural all end in –us. Can you identify the three fourth-declension nouns in the paragraph and their respective cases? (One is in the nominative singular, one in the genitive singular, one in the accusative plural.)

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82 Leave a comment on paragraph 82 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero convey Pompey’s extraordinary speed of operation in his prose?

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85 Leave a comment on paragraph 85 0 Discussion Point: What according to Cicero are Pompey’s priorities?

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gero, –rere, –ssi, –stum to bear, carry, perform, do
praetereo, –ire, –ii/-ivi, –itum to pass by, go past; omit, pass over
obeo, –ire, –ivi/-ii, –itum to meet with, visit; to attend
consequor, –qui, –cutus to come after, follow; pursue; reach, achieve
quaestus, –us, m. the acquisition of income, production of profit
studium, – (i)i, n. zeal, enthusiasm, eagerness; pursuit
impetus, –us, m. force, impetus; charge, assault; vigorous effort
tempestivus, –a, –um seasonable; ready; suitable, opportune
frumentarius, –a, –um of or concerned with corn; corn-
subsidium, -(i)i, n. reserves; a supply kept in reserve
munio, –ire, –ivi/-ii, –itum to fortify, guard from attack, safeguard

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91 Leave a comment on paragraph 91 0 Inde cum se in Italiam recepisset, duabus Hispaniis et Gallia Transalpina

92 Leave a comment on paragraph 92 0 praesidiis ac navibus confirmata, missis item in oram Illyrici maris et in Achaiam omnemque Graeciam navibus Italiae duo maria maximis classibus firmissimisque praesidiis adornavit, ipse autem, ut Brundisio profectus est, undequinquagesimo die totam ad imperium populi Romani Ciliciam adiunxit: omnes, qui ubique praedones fuerunt, partim capti interfectique sunt, partim unius huius se imperio ac potestati dediderunt. Idem Cretensibus, cum ad eum usque in Pamphyliam legatos deprecatoresque misissent, spem deditionis non ademit obsidesque imperavit. Ita tantum bellum, tam diuturnum, tam longe lateque dispersum, quo bello omnes gentes ac nationes premebantur, Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate confecit.

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95 Leave a comment on paragraph 95 0 Study Questions:

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97 Leave a comment on paragraph 97 0 ▪    Identify the various clauses and constructions that make up the first long sentence (Inde cum … Ciliciam adiunxit): what are the subjects, what the main verbs? How are they linked? How many ablative absolutes can you spot? How many subordinate clauses can you bracket off?

98 Leave a comment on paragraph 98 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of Brundisio.

99 Leave a comment on paragraph 99 0 ▪    Can you explain how the Romans hit upon the verbal monstrosity undequinquagesimus, –a, –um to express ‘49th’?

100 Leave a comment on paragraph 100 0 ▪    Parse dediderunt and identify its accusative object.

101 Leave a comment on paragraph 101 0 ▪    Parse idem.

102 Leave a comment on paragraph 102 0 ▪    Explain the construction obsides imperavit. What other constructions does the verb impero, imperare govern?

103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0 ▪    Analyse the rhetorical design of Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate confecit.

104 Leave a comment on paragraph 104 0 ▪    What kinds of ablative are extrema hieme, ineunte vere, media aestate?

105 Leave a comment on paragraph 105 0 ▪    Cicero continues with his geopolitical discourse: can you place all the locations he mentions (including Illyria, Cilicia, and Pamphylia) on a map?

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108 Leave a comment on paragraph 108 0 Stylistic Appreciation: This is the last of several paragraphs that Cicero devotes to Pompey’s campaign against the pirates. What are the rhetorical means by which he generates a sense of closure?

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111 Leave a comment on paragraph 111 0 Discussion Point: Why did the Cretans prefer to surrender to Pompey, who was far away in Pamphylia, rather than to another Roman general in their vicinity?

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inde (adverb) from that place, thence, from there
recipio, –ipere, –epi, –eptum to admit, receive, acquire, accept
se recipere to turn back, withdraw, retire; return, getback
item (adverb) similarly, likewise
adorno, –are, –avi, –atum to get ready, prepare; equip, furnish; adorn
proficiscor, –icisci, –ectus to set out, depart
undequinquagesimus, –a, –um forty-ninth
adiungo, –gere, –xi, –ctum(here with ad) to connect, link, attach; annex, acquire
ubique (adverb) in any place whatever, anywhere; everywhere
partim (adverb) partly
interficio, –ficere, –feci, –fectum to kill, destroy
dedo, –ere, –idi, –itum (reflexive) to give (oneself) up, surrender
legatus, –i, m. an ambassador, envoy, delegate; legate
deprecator, –oris, m. one who pleads for clemency, intercessor
usque (adverb) all the way to, as far as (with ad or in + acc.)
deditio, –onis, f. surrender
adimo, –imere, –emi, –emptum to remove, take away, deny, preclude
obses, –idis, m./(f.) hostage; surety, pledge, guarantee
apparo, –are, –avi, –atum to prepare, make ready, organize
ver, –ris, n. spring

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116 Leave a comment on paragraph 116 0 POMPEY’S SOFT SIDES

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118 Leave a comment on paragraph 118 0 Est haec divina atque incredibilis virtus imperatoris: quid? ceterae, quas paulo ante commemorare coeperam, quantae atque quam multae sunt! Non enim bellandi virtus solum in summo ac perfecto imperatore quaerenda est, sed multae sunt artes eximiae huius administrae comitesque virtutis. Ac primum quanta innocentia debent esse imperatores! quanta deinde in omnibus rebus temperantia! quanta fide, quanta facilitate, quanto ingenio, quanta humanitate! quae breviter qualia sint in Cn. Pompeio consideremus: summa enim omnia sunt, Quirites, sed ea magis ex aliorum contentione quam ipsa per sese cognosci atque intellegi possunt.

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121 Leave a comment on paragraph 121 0 Study Questions:

122 Leave a comment on paragraph 122 0 ▪    What noun has to be supplied with ceterae?

123 Leave a comment on paragraph 123 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of paulo.

124 Leave a comment on paragraph 124 0 ▪    In the sentence multae sunt artes eximiae huius administrae comitesque virtutis, which words are in the nominative plural, which in the genitive singular?

125 Leave a comment on paragraph 125 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are innocentia, temperantia, fide, facilitate, ingenio and humanitate?

126 Leave a comment on paragraph 126 0 ▪    What effect does the repetition of quanta generate?

127 Leave a comment on paragraph 127 0 ▪    Why is the verb of the qualia-clause (sint) in the subjunctive?

128 Leave a comment on paragraph 128 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of consideremus.

129 Leave a comment on paragraph 129 0 ▪    Parse cognosci and intellegi.

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131 Leave a comment on paragraph 131 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Cicero has reached a pivotal moment in his argument: after discussion of Pompey’s prowess as military leader, he now focuses on his personal qualities more broadly. Discuss the stylistic devices he uses to emphasize their importance.

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134 Leave a comment on paragraph 134 0 Discussion Point: Can you find contemporary parallels for Cicero’s claim that good military leaders ought to possess ‘soft qualities’ of the kind he discusses here, to complement strategic or martial excellence?

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paulum, –i, n. a small amount, little, a little bit
ars, –tis, f. skill, craftsmanship;
personal characteristic, quality
a systematic body of knowledge
eximius, –a, –um outstanding, exceptional; special, distinct
administra, –ae, f. a (female) assistant, ‘hand-maiden’
comes, –itis, m./f. companion, partner, associate
innocentia, –ae, f. freedom from guilt, innocence;
uprightness, integrity
temperantia, –ae, f. self-control, moderation, restraint
fides, –ei, f. trust, guarantee, promise, assurance;
good faith, honesty, honour;
trustworthiness, reliability
facilitas, –atis, f. facility, ease; good nature, indulgence
ingenium, -(i)i, n. natural disposition, natural abilities, talent
humanitas, –atis, f. human nature; humane character, kindness
qualis, –is, –e (interrogative) of what kind or quality
contentio, –onis, f. exercise, effort; contention, competition;
contrast, comparison

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