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27-31

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 27: THE ONLY WAY IS POMPEY

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3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 Satis mihi multa verba fecisse videor, qua re esset hoc bellum genere ipso necessarium, magnitudine periculosum. Restat ut de imperatore ad id bellum deligendo ac tantis rebus praeficiendo dicendum esse videatur. Utinam, Quirites, virorum fortium atque innocentium copiam tantam haberetis, ut haec vobis deliberatio difficilis esset, quemnam potissimum tantis rebus ac tanto bello praeficiendum putaretis! Nunc vero – cum sit unus Cn. Pompeius, qui non modo eorum hominum qui nunc sunt gloriam, sed etiam antiquitatis memoriam virtute superarit – quae res est quae cuiusquam animum in hac causa dubium facere possit?

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6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Study Questions:

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 ▪    What type of clause does qua re introduce? Why is esset in the imperfect subjunctive?

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 ▪    What kind of ablatives are genere ipso and magnitudine?

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 ▪    Which word in the ut…videatur clause governs the preposition de?

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 ▪    Explain the constructions of deligendo, praeficiendo, and dicendum esse.

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 ▪    What type of clause does Utinam introduce?

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 ▪    Identify and explain the tense and mood of haberetis.

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 ▪    What kind of clause is ut…difficilis esset?

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 ▪    What case are tantis rebus and tanto bello? How do they fit into the sentence?

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 ▪    putaretis governs an indirect statement: identify the subject accusative and the infinitive.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 ▪    What is the position of unus in relation to the noun it modifies (Cn. Pompeius)?

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 ▪    On what noun does the genitive phrase eorum hominum depend?

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 ▪    Parse superarit.

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is virtute?

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 ▪    quae res est quae…: explain the uses of quae (2x).

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 ▪    Why is possit in the subjunctive?

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 ▪    Why does Cicero consider the kind of war under discussion inevitable (necessarium) and its scope perilous (periculosum)? (NB: To answer this question you have to read the speech from the beginning.)

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 ▪    Who are the Quirites whom Cicero addresses? What is their role in the political system of late republican Rome?

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 ▪    In the stretch ut haec … putaretis! a number of alliterations occur: deliberatio, difficilis; potissimum, praeficiendum, putaretis; tantis, tanto. What (if anything) do they emphasize?

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satis (indeclinable) enough, sufficient
qua re (also: quare) in what way, why (interrogative orrelative adverb)
genus, generis, n. kind, type
resto, -are, -iti to remain (to be dealt with)
deligo, -igere, -egi, -ectum to pick out in preference to the rest,choose
praeficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum to put in charge (of), set over
utinam (particle, used to reinforcewishes expressed by the subjunctive) ‘how I wish that’, ‘if only’
fortis, –tis, –te robust, vigorous, brave, resolute
innocens, –ntis blameless, upright, virtuous; harmless
copia, –ae, f. plentiful supply, abundance
quisnam, quaenam, quidnam [quis + nam] who/what
potissimum (adverb) especially, above all, preferably
unus, -a, -um one, a single; (here) only, alone
Cn. abbreviation of Gnaeus
quisquam, quicquam any (single) person, anyone (at all)
dubius, –a, –um uncertain what to do, hesitant

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31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the way in which Cicero positions himself

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 vis-à-vis the audience in this paragraph. You may wish to focus on personal pronouns (mihi, vobis), Cicero’s use of qualifying words or phrases (satis, videor, videatur), his preference for passive or impersonal constructions, as well as rhetorical questions and assertions.

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35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 Discussion Point: Cicero argues that the citizens do not really have a choice: there is only one! Is that (ever ) true? And do you think that everyone in Cicero’s original audience would have agreed? Who might have registered a protest?

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37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 28: THE PERFECT GENERAL, POMPEY THE KID, AND MR. EXPERIENCE

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39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 Ego enim sic existimo, in summo imperatore quattuor has res inesse oportere: scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem. Quis igitur hoc homine scientior umquam aut fuit aut esse debuit? qui e ludo atque e pueritiae disciplinis, bello maximo atque acerrimis hostibus, ad patris exercitum atque in militiae disciplinam profectus est; qui extrema pueritia miles in exercitu fuit summi imperatoris, ineunte adulescentia maximi ipse exercitus imperator; qui saepius cum hoste conflixit quam quisquam cum inimico concertavit, plura bella gessit quam ceteri legerunt, plures provincias confecit quam alii concupiverunt; cuius adulescentia ad scientiam rei militaris non alienis praeceptis sed suis imperiis, non offensionibus belli sed victoriis, non stipendiis sed triumphis est erudita. Quod denique genus esse belli potest, in quo illum non exercuerit fortuna rei publicae? Civile, Africanum, Transalpinum, Hispaniense, servile, navale bellum, varia et diversa genera et bellorum et hostium, non solum gesta ab hoc uno, sed etiam confecta nullam rem esse declarant in usu positam militari, quae huius viri scientiam fugere possit.

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41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 Study Questions:

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 ▪    What kind of construction does existimo govern?

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 ▪    Explain how scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem fit into the syntax of the sentence.

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is hoc homine?

45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 ▪    Explain the construction of qui (3x) and cuius.

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is extrema pueritia?

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 ▪    What construction is ineunte adulescentia?

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 ▪    maximi ipse exercitus imperator: which words are in the nominative, which in the genitive?

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 ▪    Parse saepius.

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 ▪    What is the difference between a hostis and an inimicus?

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are alienis praeceptis, suis imperiis, offensionibus, victoriis, stipendiis, and triumphis?

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 ▪    What is the subject of the relative clause in quo illum non exercuerit fortuna rei publica? Discuss its placement in the clause.

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 ▪    Parse exercuerit and explain the mood.

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 ▪    What are the subjects of declarant (the main verb of the last sentence)?

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 ▪    declarant introduces an indirect statement: identify the subject accusative and the infinitive.

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 ▪    What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quae?

57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 ▪    Parse possit and explain the mood.

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existimo, –are, –avi, –atum to think, judge, suppose (that)
quattuor (indeclinable) four
insum, inesse, infui to be present (in), be possessed (by)
oportet, –êre, –uit it is proper, right, requisite; it is demanded
scientia, ae f. knowledge
virtus, –utis, f. the quality typical of a true man;excellence, ability; moral excellence, virtue
auctoritas, –atis, f. commanding influence, authority, prestige
felicitas, –atis, f. good fortune (as a result of divine favour )
igitur in that case, then
debeo, –êre, –ui, –itum to be under an obligation; should, ought
sciens, –ntis aware, conscious, knowledgeable
ludus, –i, m. sport, play, game; place of instruction
pueritia, –ae, f. childhood, boyhood
disciplina, –ae, f. teaching, instruction, training
militia, ae, f. military service; warfare
proficiscor, -ci, profectus sum to set out, leave, depart (from… to…)
extremus, –a, –um situated at the edge; end of
ineo, –ire, –ii/ivi, –itum to come in, enter upon, begin
adulescentia, –ae, f. (young) adulthood
confligo, –gere, –xi, –ctum to collide, clash; do battle, fight; argue
concerto, –are, –avi, –atum to contend, fight, vie with; argue, dispute
lego, –ere, legi, lectum to pick out; to read
provincia, –ae, f.
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  2. special function/task assigned to a

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 magistrate

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  2. a provincial command
  3. a territory outside Italy under direct

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 Roman control, a province

conficio, –icere, –eci, –ectum to do, perform; make; produce, cause;finish off, complete; overwhelm, undo
concupisco, –iscere, –ivi/ii, –itum to conceive a strong desire for, covet
alienus, –a, –um not one’s own; of/belonging to others
praeceptum, –i, n. (from praecipio) a piece of advice, teaching; instruction
imperium, –i, n. the right of command invested in Romanhigh office
offensio, –onis, f. the action of striking against; setback,mishap; affront, outrage
stipendium, –ii, n. a cash payment, esp. to soldiers; a year orseason of military service, campaign
erudio, –ire, –ivi/ii, –itum to instruct, train, educate (ad: in)
exerceo, –ere, –ui, –itum to train by practice, exercise; occupy

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65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 fortuna, –ae, f.                                            good or bad fortune; vicissitudes

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 Fortuna, –ae, f.                                           the goddess Fortune

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 Transalpinus, –a, –um                                situated in the region beyond the Alps

[from the point of view of Rome]

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 Hispaniensis, –is, –e                                  of or concerning Spain and its people servilis, –is, –e               of, belonging to, involving slaves usus, –us, m.                application, use; practical experience

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 in usu                                               in one’s experience

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 in usu poni/esse                              to be in common use

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 fugio, fugere, fugi                                       to run away, flee from, escape

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75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the rhetorical devices Cicero uses to convey a sense of Pompey’s comprehensive knowledge of military matters?

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78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 Discussion Point: Consider the four qualities that Cicero views as essential attributes of the perfect general: scientia rei militaris, virtus, auctoritas, felicitas. Are they still relevant qualities for military commanders today? Which qualities would your perfect general have?

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83 Leave a comment on paragraph 83 0 pompey

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85 Leave a comment on paragraph 85 0 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PompeoMagno.jpg

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88 Leave a comment on paragraph 88 0 29: HIS EXCELLENCE (AND EXCELLENCES)

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90 Leave a comment on paragraph 90 0 Iam vero virtuti Cn. Pompei quae potest oratio par inveniri? Quid est quod quisquam aut illo dignum aut vobis novum aut cuiquam inauditum possit adferre? Neque enim illae sunt solae virtutes imperatoriae, quae vulgo existimantur, labor in negotiis, fortitudo in periculis, industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo, consilium in providendo; quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus, quos aut vidimus aut audivimus, non fuerunt.

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93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0 Study Questions:

94 Leave a comment on paragraph 94 0 ▪    How does the dative virtuti fit into the sentence?

95 Leave a comment on paragraph 95 0 ▪    What is the subject of the opening question?

96 Leave a comment on paragraph 96 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of possit.

97 Leave a comment on paragraph 97 0 ▪    Discuss Cicero’s manipulation of the term ‘virtus’ in this paragraph, starting with the switch from singular (virtuti) to plural (virtutes).

98 Leave a comment on paragraph 98 0 ▪    Parse quae in the sentence quae tanta sunt in hoc uno… What is its antecedent?

99 Leave a comment on paragraph 99 0 ▪    Cicero here lists those qualities of a general that are commonly thought of as such, but also claims that there are others: what are they? And how do they compare to labor in negotiis, fortitudo in periculis, industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo, and consilium in providendo?

100 Leave a comment on paragraph 100 0 ▪    Why does Cicero distinguish between imperatores he and his audience have seen (vidimus) and those they have only heard of (audivimus)? Comment on the use of the first person plural verbs (vidimus, audivimus).

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103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the lexical and rhetorical devices Cicero uses in this paragraph to elevate Pompey’s claim to virtus above that of everyone else?

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106 Leave a comment on paragraph 106 0 Discussion Point:

108 Leave a comment on paragraph 108 0 ‘being a man’ mean in 21st century Britain? What are the similarities, what the differences?

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iam at this point, now – in a transition to a new topic
(often strengthened by vero): further, besides
par, paris matching, equal
+ dative measuring up to, equal to, adequate
invenio, –enire, –eni, –entum to encounter, come upon; discover, learn; todevise
inauditus, –a, –um unheard (of)
adfero, –rre, attuli, allatum to bring, fetch; adduce, relate
imperatorius, –a, –um of or belonging to a commanding officer
vulgo (adv.) in a way common to all, publicly, commonly
existimo, –are, –avi, –atum to form or hold an opinion of, judge; to think,suppose (that)
negotium, -(i)i, n. work, business; (pl.) public affairs
industria, –ae, f. diligence, application, industry
provideo, –idere, –idi, –isum to see in advance, see beforehand, to exerciseforethought

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116 Leave a comment on paragraph 116 0 30: WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH!

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118 Leave a comment on paragraph 118 0 Testis est Italia, quam ille ipse victor L. Sulla huius virtute et subsidio confessus est liberatam. Testis est Sicilia, quam multis undique cinctam periculis non terrore belli, sed consilii celeritate explicavit. Testis est Africa, quae magnis oppressa hostium copiis eorum ipsorum sanguine redundavit. Testis est Gallia, per quam legionibus nostris iter in Hispaniam Gallorum internecione patefactum est. Testis est Hispania, quae saepissime plurimos hostes ab hoc superatos prostratosque conspexit. Testis est iterum et saepius Italia, quae cum servili bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium absente expetivit, quod bellum exspectatione eius attenuatum atque imminutum est, adventu sublatum ac sepultum.

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121 Leave a comment on paragraph 121 0 Study Questions:

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123 Leave a comment on paragraph 123 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by confessus est.

124 Leave a comment on paragraph 124 0 ▪    What noun does multis agree with? What noun does magnis agree with? What is the rhetorical effect of the placement of multis and magnis in their respective clauses?

125 Leave a comment on paragraph 125 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are terrore and celeritate?

126 Leave a comment on paragraph 126 0 ▪    On what noun does eorum ipsorum depend? And what noun does it refer back to?

127 Leave a comment on paragraph 127 0 ▪    What is the subject of the relative clause per quam legionibus nostris iter in Hispaniam Gallorum internecione patefactum est?

128 Leave a comment on paragraph 128 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of legionibus nostris.

129 Leave a comment on paragraph 129 0 ▪    What kind of genitive is Gallorum? What noun does it depend on?

130 Leave a comment on paragraph 130 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is ab hoc?

131 Leave a comment on paragraph 131 0 ▪    Parse saepius.

132 Leave a comment on paragraph 132 0 ▪    In the sentence quae cum servili bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium absente expetivit, is the cum a preposition or a conjunction?

133 Leave a comment on paragraph 133 0 ▪    Explain the construction of quod (in the last sentence of the paragraph).

134 Leave a comment on paragraph 134 0 ▪    Consider the references to ‘blood’ and ‘slaughter’ in this paragraph and sketch out the vision of Roman geopolitics that Cicero endorses here.

135 Leave a comment on paragraph 135 0 ▪    Is there a logic to the sequence in which Cicero calls up his geographical witnesses?

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137 Leave a comment on paragraph 137 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What rhetorical effect does the repetition of Testis est… at the beginning of each sentence create?

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140 Leave a comment on paragraph 140 0 Discussion Point: Does it matter that some of the wars to which Cicero here alludes were civil wars? Which ones are they? How does he allude to them?

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subsidium, -(i)i, n. reinforcement, support; assistance, help
confiteor, –fiteri, –fessus sum to admit, confess
undique (adverb) from all sides or directions
cingo, –gere, –xi, –ctum to surround, encircle
explico, –are, –avi/-ui, –atum/-itum to free from, extricate
opprimo, –imere, –essi, –essum to press on/against, smother, overpower,crush
redundo, –are, –avi, –atum [re– + undo] to overflow, pour out
iter, itineris, n. path, road; journey
internecio, –onis, f. total destruction of life, massacre
patefacio, –facere, –feci, –factum to make visible, reveal; to open, makeaccessible
prosterno, –ernere, –ravi, –ratum to lay low, strike down, defeat utterly
conspicio, –icere, –exi, –ectum to catch sight of, see, witness, discern
taeter, –tra, –trum foul, horrible; morally offensive, vile
expeto, –ere, –ivi/-ii, –itum to ask for, request, beg; seek after, try toobtain
exspectatio, –onis, f. the state of waiting in suspense;expectation
attenuo, –are, –avi, –atum to make thin/slender, weaken, reduce
imminuo, –uere, –ui, –utum to reduce in amount or size, diminish
adventus, –us, m. arrival
tollo, –ere, sustuli, sublatum to raise, lift; remove, take away, get rid of
sepelio, –elire, –elivi/-elii, –ultum to bury; submerge, overcome

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146 Leave a comment on paragraph 146 0 31: PACIFYING THE POND, OR: POMPEY AND THE PIRATES

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148 Leave a comment on paragraph 148 0 Testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes, denique maria omnia, cum universa, tum in singulis oris omnes sinus atque portus. quis enim toto mari locus per hos annos aut tam firmum habuit praesidium, ut tutus esset, aut tam fuit abditus, ut lateret? quis navigavit, qui non se aut mortis aut servitutis periculo committeret, cum aut hieme aut referto praedonum mari navigaret? hoc tantum bellum, tam turpe, tam vetus, tam late divisum atque dispersum quis umquam arbitraretur aut ab omnibus imperatoribus uno anno aut omnibus annis ab uno imperatore confici posse?

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151 Leave a comment on paragraph 151 0 Study Questions:

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153 Leave a comment on paragraph 153 0 ▪    Identify all words in the nominative in the opening sentence (testes nunc vero iam … atque portus). What is the verb of the sentence?

154 Leave a comment on paragraph 154 0 ▪    Explain the case of toto mari.

155 Leave a comment on paragraph 155 0 ▪    What kind of ut-clauses are ut tutus esset and ut lateret?

156 Leave a comment on paragraph 156 0 ▪    Compare and contrast the quis that introduces the second sentence (quis enim toto maris locus…) with the quis that introduces the third sentence (quis navigavit…): what is the difference?

157 Leave a comment on paragraph 157 0 ▪    Explain the tense and mood of committeret.

158 Leave a comment on paragraph 158 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is hieme?

159 Leave a comment on paragraph 159 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is referto … mari?

160 Leave a comment on paragraph 160 0 ▪    Parse praedonum.

161 Leave a comment on paragraph 161 0 ▪    What are the subject and the verb of the last sentence (hoc tantum bellum … confici posse)? What is the rhetorical effect of their placement?

162 Leave a comment on paragraph 162 0 ▪    Explain the tense and mood of arbitraretur.

163 Leave a comment on paragraph 163 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the verb of the indirect statement introduced by arbitraretur.

164 Leave a comment on paragraph 164 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are ab omnibus imperatoribus and ab uno imperatore?

165 Leave a comment on paragraph 165 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are uno anno and omnibus annis?

166 Leave a comment on paragraph 166 0 ▪    Parse confici and explain its function in the sentence.

167 Leave a comment on paragraph 167 0 ▪    In the opening sentence Cicero sketches a notional map of the entire Mediterranean coastline: how much of it was under Roman control at the time of his speech?

168 Leave a comment on paragraph 168 0 ▪    What does the clause cum aut hieme aut referto praedonum mari navigaret tell us about ancient sea-faring?

169 Leave a comment on paragraph 169 0 ▪    How and why does the accusative object of the final sentence (hoc tantum bellum, tam turpe, tam vetus, tam late divisum atque dispersum) rhetorically mirror the subject of the first sentence (testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes, denique maria omnia, cum universa, tum … omnes sinus atque portus)?

170 Leave a comment on paragraph 170 0 ▪    Identify and appreciate the magnificent chiasmus in the final sentence.

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vero moreover, indeed
nunc (here introducing the final, climactic item inCicero’s list of witnesses:) as it is
ora, –ae, f. coast
exter, –era, –erum foreign
gens, –tis, f. nation, people, ethnicity; a (Roman) clan
natio, –onis, f. people, nation, ethnicity
denique finally, at last
mare, –ris, (ablative: mari), n. the sea
cum… tum (correlating two circumstances, with tumindicating the more noteworthy one) both…and…, as well as
universus, –a, –um the whole of, entire
singuli, –ae, –a (plural) each one of, every single
praesidium, -(i)i, n. defence, protection, stronghold
abditus, –a, –um hidden from sight, concealed; remote,secluded
lateo, –ere, –ui to hide, be concealed, escape notice
committo, –ittere, –isi, –issum to bring into contact with; expose to
hiems, –mis, f. winter; winter weather; storm
refertus, –a, –um (here + genitive) crammed or stuffed full of
praedo, –onis, m. pirate
turpis, –is, –e offensive, disgusting, shameful, disgraceful
vetus, –eris old, veteran, long-standing, chronic
late (adverb) over a large area, widely
divido, –idere, –isi, –isum to separate, divide, distribute
dispergo, –gere, –si, –sum to spread about, scatter, disperse
conficio, –icere, –eci, –ectum to do, perform, accomplish; bring tocompletion

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177 Leave a comment on paragraph 177 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Analyse the rhetorical design of the first sentence

178 Leave a comment on paragraph 178 0 (Testis est … sinus atque portus): how does its form reinforce its theme?

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181 Leave a comment on paragraph 181 0 Discussion Point: What does the claim ‘Pompey brought the war against the pirates to an end’ imply? How did he do it?

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