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Latin text with study questions and vocabulary aid

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 27: THE ONLY WAY IS POMPEY

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3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 Satis mihi multa verba fecisse videor, qua re esset hoc bellum genere ipso necessarium, magnitudine periculosum. Restat ut de imperatore ad id bellum deligendo ac tantis rebus praeficiendo dicendum esse videatur. Utinam, Quirites, virorum fortium atque innocentium copiam tantam haberetis, ut haec vobis deliberatio difficilis esset, quemnam potissimum tantis rebus ac tanto bello praeficiendum putaretis! Nunc vero – cum sit unus Cn. Pompeius, qui non modo eorum hominum qui nunc sunt gloriam, sed etiam antiquitatis memoriam virtute superarit – quae res est quae cuiusquam animum in hac causa dubium facere possit?

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6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Study Questions:

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 ▪    What type of clause does qua re introduce? Why is esset in the imperfect subjunctive?

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 ▪    What kind of ablatives are genere ipso and magnitudine?

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 ▪    Which word in the ut…videatur clause governs the preposition de?

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 ▪    Explain the constructions of deligendo, praeficiendo, and dicendum esse.

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 ▪    What type of clause does Utinam introduce?

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 ▪    Identify and explain the tense and mood of haberetis.

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 ▪    What kind of clause is ut…difficilis esset?

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 ▪    What case are tantis rebus and tanto bello? How do they fit into the sentence?

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 ▪    putaretis governs an indirect statement: identify the subject accusative and the

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 infinitive.

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 ▪    What is the position of unus in relation to the noun it modifies (Cn. Pompeius)?

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 ▪    On what noun does the genitive phrase eorum hominum depend?

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 ▪    Parse superarit.

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is virtute?

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 ▪    quae res est quae…: explain the uses of quae (2x).

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 ▪    Why is possit in the subjunctive?

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 ▪    Why does Cicero consider the kind of war under discussion inevitable (necessarium)

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 and its scope perilous (periculosum)? (NB: To answer this question you have to read

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 the speech from the beginning.)

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 ▪    Who are the Quirites whom Cicero addresses? What is their role in the political

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 system of late republican Rome?

28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 ▪    In the stretch ut haec … putaretis! a number of alliterations occur: deliberatio, difficilis;

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 potissimum, praeficiendum, putaretis; tantis, tanto. What (if anything) do they emphasize?

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satis (indeclinable) enough, sufficient
qua re (also: quare) in what way, why (interrogative or

33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 relative adverb)

genus, generis, n. kind, type
resto, -are, -iti to remain (to be dealt with)
deligo, -igere, -egi, -ectum to pick out in preference to the rest,

34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 choose

praeficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum to put in charge (of), set over
utinam (particle, used to reinforce

35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 wishes expressed by the subjunctive)

‘how I wish that’, ‘if only’
fortis, –tis, –te robust, vigorous, brave, resolute
innocens, –ntis blameless, upright, virtuous; harmless
copia, –ae, f. plentiful supply, abundance
quisnam, quaenam, quidnam [quis + nam] who/what
potissimum (adverb) especially, above all, preferably
unus, -a, -um one, a single; (here) only, alone
Cn. abbreviation of Gnaeus
quisquam, quicquam any (single) person, anyone (at all)
dubius, –a, –um uncertain what to do, hesitant

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38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the way in which Cicero positions himself

39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 vis-à-vis the audience in this paragraph. You may wish to focus on personal pronouns (mihi, vobis), Cicero’s use of qualifying words or phrases (satis, videor, videatur), his preference for passive or impersonal constructions, as well as rhetorical questions and assertions.

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42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 Discussion Point: Cicero argues that the citizens do not really have a choice: there is only one! Is that (ever ) true? And do you think that everyone in Cicero’s original audience would have agreed? Who might have registered a protest?

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44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 28: THE PERFECT GENERAL, POMPEY THE KID, AND MR. EXPERIENCE

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46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 Ego enim sic existimo, in summo imperatore quattuor has res inesse oportere: scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem. Quis igitur hoc homine scientior umquam aut fuit aut esse debuit? qui e ludo atque e pueritiae disciplinis, bello maximo atque acerrimis hostibus, ad patris exercitum atque in militiae disciplinam profectus est; qui extrema pueritia miles in exercitu fuit summi imperatoris, ineunte adulescentia maximi ipse exercitus imperator; qui saepius cum hoste conflixit quam quisquam cum inimico concertavit, plura bella gessit quam ceteri legerunt, plures provincias confecit quam alii concupiverunt; cuius adulescentia ad scientiam rei militaris non alienis praeceptis sed suis imperiis, non offensionibus belli sed victoriis, non stipendiis sed triumphis est erudita. Quod denique genus esse belli potest, in quo illum non exercuerit fortuna rei publicae? Civile, Africanum, Transalpinum, Hispaniense, servile, navale bellum, varia et diversa genera et bellorum et hostium, non solum gesta ab hoc uno, sed etiam confecta nullam rem esse declarant in usu positam militari, quae huius viri scientiam fugere possit.

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48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 Study Questions:

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 ▪    What kind of construction does existimo govern?

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 ▪    Explain how scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem fit into the syntax

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 of the sentence.

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is hoc homine?

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 ▪    Explain the construction of qui (3x) and cuius.

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is extrema pueritia?

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 ▪    What construction is ineunte adulescentia?

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 ▪    maximi ipse exercitus imperator: which words are in the nominative, which in the

57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 genitive?

58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 ▪    Parse saepius.

59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 ▪    What is the difference between a hostis and an inimicus?

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are alienis praeceptis, suis imperiis, offensionibus, victoriis,

61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 stipendiis, and triumphis?

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 ▪    What is the subject of the relative clause in quo illum non exercuerit fortuna rei publica?

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 Discuss its placement in the clause.

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0 ▪    Parse exercuerit and explain the mood.

65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 ▪    What are the subjects of declarant (the main verb of the last sentence)?

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 ▪    declarant introduces an indirect statement: identify the subject accusative and the

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 infinitive.

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 ▪    What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quae?

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71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 ▪    Parse possit and explain the mood.

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existimo, –are, –avi, –atum to think, judge, suppose (that)
quattuor (indeclinable) four
insum, inesse, infui to be present (in), be possessed (by)
oportet, –êre, –uit it is proper, right, requisite; it is demanded
scientia, ae f. knowledge
virtus, –utis, f. the quality typical of a true man;

73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 excellence, ability; moral excellence, virtue

auctoritas, –atis, f. commanding influence, authority, prestige
felicitas, –atis, f. good fortune (as a result of divine favour )
igitur in that case, then
debeo, –êre, –ui, –itum to be under an obligation; should, ought
sciens, –ntis aware, conscious, knowledgeable
ludus, –i, m. sport, play, game; place of instruction
pueritia, –ae, f. childhood, boyhood
disciplina, –ae, f. teaching, instruction, training
militia, ae, f. military service; warfare
proficiscor, -ci, profectus sum to set out, leave, depart (from… to…)
extremus, –a, –um situated at the edge; end of
ineo, –ire, –ii/ivi, –itum to come in, enter upon, begin
adulescentia, –ae, f. (young) adulthood
confligo, –gere, –xi, –ctum to collide, clash; do battle, fight; argue
concerto, –are, –avi, –atum to contend, fight, vie with; argue, dispute
lego, –ere, legi, lectum to pick out; to read
provincia, –ae, f.
  1. special function/task assigned to a

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 magistrate

  1. 75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0
  2. a provincial command
  3. a territory outside Italy under direct

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 Roman control, a province

conficio, –icere, –eci, –ectum to do, perform; make; produce, cause;

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 finish off, complete; overwhelm, undo

concupisco, –iscere, –ivi/ii, –itum to conceive a strong desire for, covet
alienus, –a, –um not one’s own; of/belonging to others
praeceptum, –i, n. (from praecipio) a piece of advice, teaching; instruction
imperium, –i, n. the right of command invested in Roman

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 high office

offensio, –onis, f. the action of striking against; setback,

79 Leave a comment on paragraph 79 0 mishap; affront, outrage

stipendium, –ii, n. a cash payment, esp. to soldiers; a year or

80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 season of military service, campaign

erudio, –ire, –ivi/ii, –itum to instruct, train, educate (ad: in)
exerceo, –ere, –ui, –itum to train by practice, exercise; occupy

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83 Leave a comment on paragraph 83 0 fortuna, –ae, f.                                            good or bad fortune; vicissitudes

84 Leave a comment on paragraph 84 0 Fortuna, –ae, f.                                           the goddess Fortune

85 Leave a comment on paragraph 85 0 Transalpinus, –a, –um                                situated in the region beyond the Alps

[from the point of view of Rome]

86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 Hispaniensis, –is, –e                                  of or concerning Spain and its people servilis, –is, –e               of, belonging to, involving slaves usus, –us, m.                application, use; practical experience

87 Leave a comment on paragraph 87 0 in usu                                               in one’s experience

88 Leave a comment on paragraph 88 0 in usu poni/esse                              to be in common use

89 Leave a comment on paragraph 89 0 fugio, fugere, fugi                                       to run away, flee from, escape

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93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the rhetorical devices Cicero uses to convey a sense of Pompey’s comprehensive knowledge of military matters?

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96 Leave a comment on paragraph 96 0 Discussion Point: Consider the four qualities that Cicero views as essential attributes of the perfect general: scientia rei militaris, virtus, auctoritas, felicitas. Are they still relevant qualities for military commanders today? Which qualities would your perfect general have?

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101 Leave a comment on paragraph 101 0 Fig. 2 Roman statue of Pompey, in Villa Arconati a Castellazzo di Bollate (Milan).

102 Leave a comment on paragraph 102 0 Photograph by Guido Bertolotti, 2007. Image from Wikimedia.

103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PompeoMagno.jpg

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106 Leave a comment on paragraph 106 0 29: HIS EXCELLENCE (AND EXCELLENCES)

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108 Leave a comment on paragraph 108 0 Iam vero virtuti Cn. Pompei quae potest oratio par inveniri? Quid est quod quisquam aut illo dignum aut vobis novum aut cuiquam inauditum possit adferre? Neque enim illae sunt solae virtutes imperatoriae, quae vulgo existimantur, labor in negotiis, fortitudo in periculis, industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo, consilium in providendo; quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus, quos aut vidimus aut audivimus, non fuerunt.

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111 Leave a comment on paragraph 111 0 Study Questions:

112 Leave a comment on paragraph 112 0 ▪    How does the dative virtuti fit into the sentence?

113 Leave a comment on paragraph 113 0 ▪    What is the subject of the opening question?

114 Leave a comment on paragraph 114 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of possit.

115 Leave a comment on paragraph 115 0 ▪    Discuss Cicero’s manipulation of the term ‘virtus’ in this paragraph, starting with

116 Leave a comment on paragraph 116 0 the switch from singular (virtuti) to plural (virtutes).

117 Leave a comment on paragraph 117 0 ▪    Parse quae in the sentence quae tanta sunt in hoc uno… What is its antecedent?

118 Leave a comment on paragraph 118 0 ▪    Cicero here lists those qualities of a general that are commonly thought of as such,

119 Leave a comment on paragraph 119 0 but also claims that there are others: what are they? And how do they compare to

120 Leave a comment on paragraph 120 0 labor in negotiis, fortitudo in periculis, industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo, and

121 Leave a comment on paragraph 121 0 consilium in providendo?

122 Leave a comment on paragraph 122 0 ▪    Why does Cicero distinguish between imperatores he and his audience have seen

123 Leave a comment on paragraph 123 0 (vidimus) and those they have only heard of (audivimus)? Comment on the use of the

124 Leave a comment on paragraph 124 0 first person plural verbs (vidimus, audivimus).

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127 Leave a comment on paragraph 127 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the lexical and rhetorical devices Cicero uses in this paragraph to elevate Pompey’s claim to virtus above that of everyone else?

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130 Leave a comment on paragraph 130 0 Discussion Point:

132 Leave a comment on paragraph 132 0 ‘being a man’ mean in 21st century Britain? What are the similarities, what the differences?

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iam   at this point, now – in a transition to a new topic
  (often strengthened by vero): further, besides
par, paris matching, equal
  + dative measuring up to, equal to, adequate
invenio, –enire, –eni, –entum to encounter, come upon; discover, learn; to

138 Leave a comment on paragraph 138 0 devise

inauditus, –a, –um unheard (of)
adfero, –rre, attuli, allatum to bring, fetch; adduce, relate
imperatorius, –a, –um of or belonging to a commanding officer
vulgo (adv.) in a way common to all, publicly, commonly
existimo, –are, –avi, –atum to form or hold an opinion of, judge; to think,

139 Leave a comment on paragraph 139 0 suppose (that)

negotium, -(i)i, n. work, business; (pl.) public affairs
industria, –ae, f. diligence, application, industry
provideo, –idere, –idi, –isum to see in advance, see beforehand, to exercise

140 Leave a comment on paragraph 140 0 forethought

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142 Leave a comment on paragraph 142 0 30: WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH!

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144 Leave a comment on paragraph 144 0 Testis est Italia, quam ille ipse victor L. Sulla huius virtute et subsidio confessus est liberatam. Testis est Sicilia, quam multis undique cinctam periculis non terrore belli, sed consilii celeritate explicavit. Testis est Africa, quae magnis oppressa hostium copiis eorum ipsorum sanguine redundavit. Testis est Gallia, per quam legionibus nostris iter in Hispaniam Gallorum internecione patefactum est. Testis est Hispania, quae saepissime plurimos hostes ab hoc superatos prostratosque conspexit. Testis est iterum et saepius Italia, quae cum servili bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium absente expetivit, quod bellum exspectatione eius attenuatum atque imminutum est, adventu sublatum ac sepultum.

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147 Leave a comment on paragraph 147 0 Study Questions:

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149 Leave a comment on paragraph 149 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by confessus est.

150 Leave a comment on paragraph 150 0 ▪    What noun does multis agree with? What noun does magnis agree with? What is the

151 Leave a comment on paragraph 151 0 rhetorical effect of the placement of multis and magnis in their respective clauses?

152 Leave a comment on paragraph 152 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are terrore and celeritate?

153 Leave a comment on paragraph 153 0 ▪    On what noun does eorum ipsorum depend? And what noun does it refer back to?

154 Leave a comment on paragraph 154 0 ▪    What is the subject of the relative clause per quam legionibus nostris iter in Hispaniam

155 Leave a comment on paragraph 155 0 Gallorum internecione patefactum est?

156 Leave a comment on paragraph 156 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of legionibus nostris.

157 Leave a comment on paragraph 157 0 ▪    What kind of genitive is Gallorum? What noun does it depend on?

158 Leave a comment on paragraph 158 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is ab hoc?

159 Leave a comment on paragraph 159 0 ▪    Parse saepius.

160 Leave a comment on paragraph 160 0 ▪    In the sentence quae cum servili bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium

161 Leave a comment on paragraph 161 0 absente expetivit, is the cum a preposition or a conjunction?

162 Leave a comment on paragraph 162 0 ▪    Explain the construction of quod (in the last sentence of the paragraph).

163 Leave a comment on paragraph 163 0 ▪    Consider the references to ‘blood’ and ‘slaughter’ in this paragraph and sketch out

164 Leave a comment on paragraph 164 0 the vision of Roman geopolitics that Cicero endorses here.

165 Leave a comment on paragraph 165 0 ▪    Is there a logic to the sequence in which Cicero calls up his geographical witnesses?

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167 Leave a comment on paragraph 167 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What rhetorical effect does the repetition of Testis est… at the beginning of each sentence create?

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170 Leave a comment on paragraph 170 0 Discussion Point: Does it matter that some of the wars to which Cicero here alludes were civil wars? Which ones are they? How does he allude to them?

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subsidium, -(i)i, n. reinforcement, support; assistance, help
confiteor, –fiteri, –fessus sum to admit, confess
undique (adverb) from all sides or directions
cingo, –gere, –xi, –ctum to surround, encircle
explico, –are, –avi/-ui, –atum/-itum to free from, extricate
opprimo, –imere, –essi, –essum to press on/against, smother, overpower,

174 Leave a comment on paragraph 174 0 crush

redundo, –are, –avi, –atum [re– + undo] to overflow, pour out
iter, itineris, n. path, road; journey
internecio, –onis, f. total destruction of life, massacre
patefacio, –facere, –feci, –factum to make visible, reveal; to open, make

175 Leave a comment on paragraph 175 0 accessible

prosterno, –ernere, –ravi, –ratum to lay low, strike down, defeat utterly
conspicio, –icere, –exi, –ectum to catch sight of, see, witness, discern
taeter, –tra, –trum foul, horrible; morally offensive, vile
expeto, –ere, –ivi/-ii, –itum to ask for, request, beg; seek after, try to

176 Leave a comment on paragraph 176 0 obtain

exspectatio, –onis, f. the state of waiting in suspense;

177 Leave a comment on paragraph 177 0 expectation

attenuo, –are, –avi, –atum to make thin/slender, weaken, reduce
imminuo, –uere, –ui, –utum to reduce in amount or size, diminish
adventus, –us, m. arrival
tollo, –ere, sustuli, sublatum to raise, lift; remove, take away, get rid of
sepelio, –elire, –elivi/-elii, –ultum to bury; submerge, overcome

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179 Leave a comment on paragraph 179 0 31: PACIFYING THE POND, OR: POMPEY AND THE PIRATES

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181 Leave a comment on paragraph 181 0 Testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes, denique maria omnia, cum universa, tum in singulis oris omnes sinus atque portus. quis enim toto mari locus per hos annos aut tam firmum habuit praesidium, ut tutus esset, aut tam fuit abditus, ut lateret? quis navigavit, qui non se aut mortis aut servitutis periculo committeret, cum aut hieme aut referto praedonum mari navigaret? hoc tantum bellum, tam turpe, tam vetus, tam late divisum atque dispersum quis umquam arbitraretur aut ab omnibus imperatoribus uno anno aut omnibus annis ab uno imperatore confici posse?

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184 Leave a comment on paragraph 184 0 Study Questions:

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186 Leave a comment on paragraph 186 0 ▪             Identify all words in the nominative in the opening sentence (testes nunc vero iam … atque portus). What is the verb of the sentence?

187 Leave a comment on paragraph 187 0 ▪    Explain the case of toto mari.

188 Leave a comment on paragraph 188 0 ▪    What kind of ut-clauses are ut tutus esset and ut lateret?

189 Leave a comment on paragraph 189 0 ▪    Compare and contrast the quis that introduces the second sentence (quis enim toto

190 Leave a comment on paragraph 190 0 maris locus…) with the quis that introduces the third sentence (quis navigavit…): what

191 Leave a comment on paragraph 191 0 is the difference?

192 Leave a comment on paragraph 192 0 ▪    Explain the tense and mood of committeret.

193 Leave a comment on paragraph 193 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is hieme?

194 Leave a comment on paragraph 194 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is referto … mari?

195 Leave a comment on paragraph 195 0 ▪    Parse praedonum.

196 Leave a comment on paragraph 196 0 ▪    What are the subject and the verb of the last sentence (hoc tantum bellum … confici

197 Leave a comment on paragraph 197 0 posse)? What is the rhetorical effect of their placement?

198 Leave a comment on paragraph 198 0 ▪    Explain the tense and mood of arbitraretur.

199 Leave a comment on paragraph 199 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the verb of the indirect statement introduced by

200 Leave a comment on paragraph 200 0 arbitraretur.

201 Leave a comment on paragraph 201 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are ab omnibus imperatoribus and ab uno imperatore?

202 Leave a comment on paragraph 202 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are uno anno and omnibus annis?

203 Leave a comment on paragraph 203 0 ▪    Parse confici and explain its function in the sentence.

204 Leave a comment on paragraph 204 0 ▪    In the opening sentence Cicero sketches a notional map of the entire Mediterranean

205 Leave a comment on paragraph 205 0 coastline: how much of it was under Roman control at the time of his speech?

206 Leave a comment on paragraph 206 0 ▪    What does the clause cum aut hieme aut referto praedonum mari navigaret tell us about

207 Leave a comment on paragraph 207 0 ancient sea-faring?

208 Leave a comment on paragraph 208 0 ▪    How and why does the accusative object of the final sentence (hoc tantum bellum, tam

209 Leave a comment on paragraph 209 0 turpe, tam vetus, tam late divisum atque dispersum) rhetorically mirror the subject of

210 Leave a comment on paragraph 210 0 the first sentence (testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes,

211 Leave a comment on paragraph 211 0 denique maria omnia, cum universa, tum … omnes sinus atque portus)?

212 Leave a comment on paragraph 212 0 ▪    Identify and appreciate the magnificent chiasmus in the final sentence.

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vero moreover, indeed
nunc (here introducing the final, climactic item in

216 Leave a comment on paragraph 216 0 Cicero’s list of witnesses:) as it is

ora, –ae, f. coast
exter, –era, –erum foreign
gens, –tis, f. nation, people, ethnicity; a (Roman) clan
natio, –onis, f. people, nation, ethnicity
denique finally, at last
mare, –ris, (ablative: mari), n. the sea
cum… tum (correlating two circumstances, with tum

217 Leave a comment on paragraph 217 0 indicating the more noteworthy one) both…

218 Leave a comment on paragraph 218 0 and…, as well as

universus, –a, –um the whole of, entire
singuli, –ae, –a (plural) each one of, every single
praesidium, -(i)i, n. defence, protection, stronghold
abditus, –a, –um hidden from sight, concealed; remote,

219 Leave a comment on paragraph 219 0 secluded

lateo, –ere, –ui to hide, be concealed, escape notice
committo, –ittere, –isi, –issum to bring into contact with; expose to
hiems, –mis, f. winter; winter weather; storm
refertus, –a, –um (here + genitive) crammed or stuffed full of
praedo, –onis, m. pirate
turpis, –is, –e offensive, disgusting, shameful, disgraceful
vetus, –eris old, veteran, long-standing, chronic
late (adverb) over a large area, widely
divido, –idere, –isi, –isum to separate, divide, distribute
dispergo, –gere, –si, –sum to spread about, scatter, disperse
conficio, –icere, –eci, –ectum to do, perform, accomplish; bring to

220 Leave a comment on paragraph 220 0 completion

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223 Leave a comment on paragraph 223 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Analyse the rhetorical design of the first sentence

224 Leave a comment on paragraph 224 0 (Testis est … sinus atque portus): how does its form reinforce its theme?

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227 Leave a comment on paragraph 227 0 Discussion Point: What does the claim ‘Pompey brought the war against the pirates to an end’ imply? How did he do it?

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230 Leave a comment on paragraph 230 0 32: THE PIRATES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

231 Leave a comment on paragraph 231 0  

232 Leave a comment on paragraph 232 0 Quam provinciam tenuistis a praedonibus liberam per hosce annos? quod vectigal vobis tutum fuit? quem socium defendistis? cui praesidio classibus vestris fuistis? quam multas existimatis insulas esse desertas, quam multas aut metu relictas aut a praedonibus captas urbes esse sociorum? Sed quid ego longinqua commemoro? Fuit hoc quondam, fuit proprium populi Romani, longe a domo bellare, et propugnaculis imperii sociorum fortunas, non sua tecta defendere. Sociis ego nostris mare per hos annos clausum fuisse dicam, cum exercitus vestri numquam Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint? Qui ad vos ab exteris nationibus venirent captos querar, cum legati populi Romani redempti sint? Mercatoribus tutum mare non fuisse dicam, cum duodecim secures in praedonum potestatem pervenerint?

233 Leave a comment on paragraph 233 0  

234 Leave a comment on paragraph 234 0  

235 Leave a comment on paragraph 235 0 Study Questions:

236 Leave a comment on paragraph 236 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of liberam.

237 Leave a comment on paragraph 237 0 ▪    What kind of dative is vobis?

238 Leave a comment on paragraph 238 0 ▪    What kind of dative is cui?

239 Leave a comment on paragraph 239 0 ▪    What kind of dative is praesidio?

240 Leave a comment on paragraph 240 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of classibus vestris.

241 Leave a comment on paragraph 241 0 ▪    Explain the difference between the quam in quam provinciam and the quam in quam

242 Leave a comment on paragraph 242 0 multas.

243 Leave a comment on paragraph 243 0 ▪    Identify the components of the indirect statement introduced by existimatis.

244 Leave a comment on paragraph 244 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is metu?

245 Leave a comment on paragraph 245 0 ▪    Parse longinqua.

246 Leave a comment on paragraph 246 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is propugnaculis?

247 Leave a comment on paragraph 247 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of sociis … nostris.

248 Leave a comment on paragraph 248 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is Brundisio?

249 Leave a comment on paragraph 249 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is hieme summa?

250 Leave a comment on paragraph 250 0 ▪    Why is venirent in the imperfect subjunctive?

251 Leave a comment on paragraph 251 0 ▪    What is the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced

252 Leave a comment on paragraph 252 0 by querar?

253 Leave a comment on paragraph 253 0 ▪    legati populi Romani: which noun is in the nominative plural, which in the genitive

254 Leave a comment on paragraph 254 0 singular?

255 Leave a comment on paragraph 255 0 ▪    Try to imagine what an urbs capta entails.

256 Leave a comment on paragraph 256 0 ▪    Explore the ways in which Cicero plays with ‘centre’ (Rome) and ‘periphery’ in this

257 Leave a comment on paragraph 257 0 paragraph.

258 Leave a comment on paragraph 258 0 ▪    What does Cicero mean when he says that ‘twelve axes’ (duodecim secures) fell into

259 Leave a comment on paragraph 259 0 the hands of the pirates?

260 Leave a comment on paragraph 260 0 ▪    With reference to phrases that refer to aggressive or defensive military measures, try

261 Leave a comment on paragraph 261 0 to describe the picture of Rome’s imperial presence in the Mediterranean that Cicero

262 Leave a comment on paragraph 262 0 is painting here.

263 Leave a comment on paragraph 263 0  

264 Leave a comment on paragraph 264 0  

265 Leave a comment on paragraph 265 0  

vectigal, –alis, n. revenue
tutus, –a, –um safe, secure, protected from danger
praesidium, -(i)i, n. defence, protection
classis, –is, f. a naval force, fleet; a class or grade
metus, –us, m. (f.) fear, alarm, apprehension
longinquus, –a, –um situated at a distance, far-off, remote
commemoro, –are, –avi, –atum to recall, mention, relate
quondam (adv.) formerly, in ancient days; some day
proprius, –a, –um one’s own, personal, peculiar to, special
bello, –are, –avi, –atum to wage war, fight
propugnaculum, –i, n. a bulwark, rampart, defence
fortuna, –ae, f. fortune, chance, prosperity
in plural: wealth, property
tectum, –i, n. roof; house, dwelling
claudo, –dere, –si, –sum to close, shut; blockade
legatus, –i, m. an ambassador, envoy; legate
redimo, –imere, –emi, –emptum to buy back, ransom, rescue
mercator, –oris, m. merchant, trader
duodecim (indeclinable) twelve
securis, –is, f. an axe
pervenio, –enire, –eni, –entum to come to, arrive at, to pass into the

266 Leave a comment on paragraph 266 0 hands of, to come under the control of

266 Leave a comment on paragraph 266 0  

267 Leave a comment on paragraph 267 0 Stylistic Appreciation: The paragraph contains nine rhetorical questions.

268 Leave a comment on paragraph 268 0 Can you identify sets and patterns?

269 Leave a comment on paragraph 269 0  

270 Leave a comment on paragraph 270 0  

271 Leave a comment on paragraph 271 0 Discussion Point: How would you define the way in which Cicero interacts with his audience in this paragraph?

272 Leave a comment on paragraph 272 0  

273 Leave a comment on paragraph 273 0  

274 Leave a comment on paragraph 274 0 33: PIRATES ANTE PORTAS!

275 Leave a comment on paragraph 275 0  

276 Leave a comment on paragraph 276 0 Cnidum aut Colophonem aut Samum, nobilissimas urbes, innumerabilesque alias captas esse commemorem, cum vestros portus atque eos portus, quibus vitam et spiritum ducitis, in praedonum fuisse potestate sciatis? An vero ignoratis portum Caietae celeberrimum ac plenissimum navium inspectante praetore a praedonibus esse direptum? ex Miseno autem eius ipsius liberos, qui cum praedonibus antea bellum gesserat, a praedonibus esse sublatos? Nam quid ego Ostiense incommodum atque illam labem atque ignominiam rei publicae querar, cum prope inspectantibus vobis classis ea, cui consul populi Romani praepositus esset, a praedonibus capta atque oppressa est? Pro di immortales! tantamne unius hominis incredibilis ac divina virtus tam brevi tempore lucem adferre rei publicae potuit, ut vos, qui modo ante ostium Tiberinum classem hostium videbatis, nunc nullam intra Oceani ostium praedonum navem esse audiatis?

277 Leave a comment on paragraph 277 0  

278 Leave a comment on paragraph 278 0  

279 Leave a comment on paragraph 279 0 Study Questions:

280 Leave a comment on paragraph 280 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of commemorem.

281 Leave a comment on paragraph 281 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusatives and the infinitives of the indirect statements introduced

282 Leave a comment on paragraph 282 0 by commemorem, sciatis, and ignoratis.

283 Leave a comment on paragraph 283 0 ▪    What does Cicero mean by vitam et spiritum?

284 Leave a comment on paragraph 284 0 ▪    What construction are inspectante praetore and inspectantibus vobis?

285 Leave a comment on paragraph 285 0 ▪    Look at the verbs captas esse, esse direptum, esse sublatos, capta (sc. est), oppressa est. What

286 Leave a comment on paragraph 286 0 do you notice about their voice? Is there a rationale for Cicero’s ‘choice of voice’ here?

287 Leave a comment on paragraph 287 0 How does it change after pro di immortales!?

288 Leave a comment on paragraph 288 0 ▪    cui consul…praepositus est: what case is cui and why? What is the antecedent?

289 Leave a comment on paragraph 289 0 ▪    Does Cicero choose his moment for the exclamation pro di immortales well?

290 Leave a comment on paragraph 290 0 ▪    What noun does tantam(ne) agree with? What is the rhetorical effect of its placement

291 Leave a comment on paragraph 291 0 in the sentence?

292 Leave a comment on paragraph 292 0 ▪    Explore the tension between ‘mortal’ and ‘immortal’ in the phrase unius hominis

293 Leave a comment on paragraph 293 0 incredibilis ac divina virtus.

294 Leave a comment on paragraph 294 0 ▪    What is the rhetorical effect of Cicero’s relentless references to pirates in this paragraph

295 Leave a comment on paragraph 295 0 (in praedonum … potestate; a praedonibus; cum praedonibus; a praedonibus; a praedonibus;

296 Leave a comment on paragraph 296 0 nullam … praedonum navem)?

297 Leave a comment on paragraph 297 0 ▪    Discuss Cicero’s reference to seeing and spectatorship in this paragraph.

298 Leave a comment on paragraph 298 0 ▪    Can you place the locations Cicero mentions here (Cnidus, Colophon, Samos, Caieta,

299 Leave a comment on paragraph 299 0 Misenum, Ostia, the straits of Gibraltar ) on a map? Is there a logic to the order in which

300 Leave a comment on paragraph 300 0 they occur?

301 Leave a comment on paragraph 301 0  

302 Leave a comment on paragraph 302 0  

303 Leave a comment on paragraph 303 0  

Cnidus, –i, m. Cnidus (a town in the extreme South-West of

304 Leave a comment on paragraph 304 0 Caria)

Colophon, –onis, m. Colophon (a city in Ionia)
Samos, –i, f.

305 Leave a comment on paragraph 305 0 – acc. –um or –on

Samos (an island off the coast of Asia Minor )
spiritus, –us, m. the action of breathing, respiration;
breath (of life)
scio, –ire, –ii/-ivi, –itum to know, be aware of
ignoro, –are, –avi, –atum to have no knowledge of, be ignorant of
celeber, –bris, –bre much used, busy, frequented;
famed, celebrated, distinguished
inspecto, –are, –avi, –atum to look at, watch, observe; look on
diripio, –ipere, –ipui, –eptum to pull to pieces, tear to shreds
to seize as plunder, loot
liberi, –um (or –orum), m. pl. sons and daughters, children
tollo, –ere, sustuli, sublatum to pick up, take away, remove, carry off
Ostiensis, –is, –e of or belonging to Ostia
incommodum, –i, n. detriment, harm, disadvantage;
misfortune, trouble, set-back
labes, –is, f. disaster, defect;
stain upon honour or reputation, disgrace
ignominia, –ae, f. disgrace
queror, –ri, –stus to regret, complain, grumble, protest
prope in close proximity, near by;
(modifying a hyperbole): almost, pretty well
praepono, –onere, –osui, –ositum to place in front; to put in charge of
modo (adverb) only recently
ostium, -(i)i, n. a door, aperture, opening; mouth
ostium Oceani the strait of Gibraltar

305 Leave a comment on paragraph 305 0  

306 Leave a comment on paragraph 306 0  

307 Leave a comment on paragraph 307 0  

308 Leave a comment on paragraph 308 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero maintain the supernatural

309 Leave a comment on paragraph 309 0 colouring he introduces in his discourse with the exclamation pro di immortales! in the subsequent sentence?

310 Leave a comment on paragraph 310 0  

311 Leave a comment on paragraph 311 0  

312 Leave a comment on paragraph 312 0 Discussion Point: Why does Cicero refer to the pirates’ attack on Ostia as a national disgrace? What qualifies as a ‘national disgrace’ nowadays?

313 Leave a comment on paragraph 313 0  

314 Leave a comment on paragraph 314 0  

315 Leave a comment on paragraph 315 0 Atque haec qua celeritate gesta sint, quamquam videtis, tamen a me in

316 Leave a comment on paragraph 316 0 dicendo praetereunda non sunt. Quis enim umquam aut obeundi negotii aut consequendi quaestus studio tam brevi tempore tot loca adire, tantos cursus conficere potuit, quam celeriter Cn. Pompeio duce tanti belli impetus navigavit? qui nondum tempestivo ad navigandum mari Siciliam adiit, Africam exploravit, in Sardiniam cum classe venit, atque haec tria frumentaria subsidia rei publicae firmissimis praesidiis classibusque munivit.

317 Leave a comment on paragraph 317 0  

318 Leave a comment on paragraph 318 0  

319 Leave a comment on paragraph 319 0 Study Questions:

320 Leave a comment on paragraph 320 0 ▪    What kind of clause does qua introduce?

321 Leave a comment on paragraph 321 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is a me? What is unusual about it?

322 Leave a comment on paragraph 322 0 ▪    Explain the construction Cn. Pompeio duce.

323 Leave a comment on paragraph 323 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of qui (in qui nondum…).

324 Leave a comment on paragraph 324 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of navigandum.

325 Leave a comment on paragraph 325 0 ▪    For most nouns in the fourth declension, the nominative singular, the genitive

326 Leave a comment on paragraph 326 0 singular, the nominative plural, and the accusative plural all end in –us. Can you

327 Leave a comment on paragraph 327 0 identify the three fourth-declension nouns in the paragraph and their respective

328 Leave a comment on paragraph 328 0 cases? (One is in the nominative singular, one in the genitive singular, one in the

329 Leave a comment on paragraph 329 0 accusative plural.)

330 Leave a comment on paragraph 330 0  

331 Leave a comment on paragraph 331 0  

332 Leave a comment on paragraph 332 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero convey Pompey’s extraordinary speed of operation in his prose?

333 Leave a comment on paragraph 333 0  

334 Leave a comment on paragraph 334 0  

335 Leave a comment on paragraph 335 0 Discussion Point: What according to Cicero are Pompey’s priorities?

336 Leave a comment on paragraph 336 0  

337 Leave a comment on paragraph 337 0  

338 Leave a comment on paragraph 338 0  

gero, –rere, –ssi, –stum to bear, carry, perform, do
praetereo, –ire, –ii/-ivi, –itum to pass by, go past; omit, pass over
obeo, –ire, –ivi/-ii, –itum to meet with, visit; to attend
consequor, –qui, –cutus to come after, follow; pursue; reach, achieve
quaestus, –us, m. the acquisition of income, production of profit
studium, – (i)i, n. zeal, enthusiasm, eagerness; pursuit
impetus, –us, m. force, impetus; charge, assault; vigorous effort
tempestivus, –a, –um seasonable; ready; suitable, opportune
frumentarius, –a, –um of or concerned with corn; corn-
subsidium, -(i)i, n. reserves; a supply kept in reserve
munio, –ire, –ivi/-ii, –itum to fortify, guard from attack, safeguard

339 Leave a comment on paragraph 339 0  

340 Leave a comment on paragraph 340 0  

341 Leave a comment on paragraph 341 0 Inde cum se in Italiam recepisset, duabus Hispaniis et Gallia Transalpina

342 Leave a comment on paragraph 342 0 praesidiis ac navibus confirmata, missis item in oram Illyrici maris et in Achaiam omnemque Graeciam navibus Italiae duo maria maximis classibus firmissimisque praesidiis adornavit, ipse autem, ut Brundisio profectus est, undequinquagesimo die totam ad imperium populi Romani Ciliciam adiunxit: omnes, qui ubique praedones fuerunt, partim capti interfectique sunt, partim unius huius se imperio ac potestati dediderunt. Idem Cretensibus, cum ad eum usque in Pamphyliam legatos deprecatoresque misissent, spem deditionis non ademit obsidesque imperavit. Ita tantum bellum, tam diuturnum, tam longe lateque dispersum, quo bello omnes gentes ac nationes premebantur, Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate confecit.

343 Leave a comment on paragraph 343 0  

344 Leave a comment on paragraph 344 0  

345 Leave a comment on paragraph 345 0 Study Questions:

346 Leave a comment on paragraph 346 0  

347 Leave a comment on paragraph 347 0 ▪    Identify the various clauses and constructions that make up the first long sentence (Inde cum … Ciliciam adiunxit): what are the subjects, what the main verbs? How are they linked? How many ablative absolutes can you spot? How many subordinate

348 Leave a comment on paragraph 348 0 clauses can you bracket off?

349 Leave a comment on paragraph 349 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of Brundisio.

350 Leave a comment on paragraph 350 0 ▪    Can you explain how the Romans hit upon the verbal monstrosity undequinquagesimus,

351 Leave a comment on paragraph 351 0a, –um to express ‘49th’?

352 Leave a comment on paragraph 352 0 ▪    Parse dediderunt and identify its accusative object.

353 Leave a comment on paragraph 353 0 ▪    Parse idem.

354 Leave a comment on paragraph 354 0 ▪    Explain the construction obsides imperavit. What other constructions does the verb

355 Leave a comment on paragraph 355 0 impero, imperare govern?

356 Leave a comment on paragraph 356 0 ▪    Analyse the rhetorical design of Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme apparavit, ineunte vere

357 Leave a comment on paragraph 357 0 suscepit, media aestate confecit.

358 Leave a comment on paragraph 358 0 ▪    What kinds of ablative are extrema hieme, ineunte vere, media aestate?

359 Leave a comment on paragraph 359 0 ▪    Cicero continues with his geopolitical discourse: can you place all the locations he

360 Leave a comment on paragraph 360 0 mentions (including Illyria, Cilicia, and Pamphylia) on a map?

361 Leave a comment on paragraph 361 0  

362 Leave a comment on paragraph 362 0  

363 Leave a comment on paragraph 363 0 Stylistic Appreciation: This is the last of several paragraphs that Cicero devotes to Pompey’s campaign against the pirates. What are the rhetorical means by which he generates a sense of closure?

364 Leave a comment on paragraph 364 0  

365 Leave a comment on paragraph 365 0  

366 Leave a comment on paragraph 366 0 Discussion Point: Why did the Cretans prefer to surrender to Pompey, who was far away in Pamphylia, rather than to another Roman general in their vicinity?

367 Leave a comment on paragraph 367 0  

368 Leave a comment on paragraph 368 0  

369 Leave a comment on paragraph 369 0  

inde (adverb) from that place, thence, from there
recipio, –ipere, –epi, –eptum to admit, receive, acquire, accept
se recipere to turn back, withdraw, retire; return, get

370 Leave a comment on paragraph 370 0 back

item (adverb) similarly, likewise
adorno, –are, –avi, –atum to get ready, prepare; equip, furnish; adorn
proficiscor, –icisci, –ectus to set out, depart
undequinquagesimus, –a, –um forty-ninth
adiungo, –gere, –xi, –ctum

371 Leave a comment on paragraph 371 0 (here with ad)

to connect, link, attach; annex, acquire
ubique (adverb) in any place whatever, anywhere; everywhere
partim (adverb) partly
interficio, –ficere, –feci, –fectum to kill, destroy
dedo, –ere, –idi, –itum (reflexive) to give (oneself) up, surrender
legatus, –i, m. an ambassador, envoy, delegate; legate
deprecator, –oris, m. one who pleads for clemency, intercessor
usque (adverb) all the way to, as far as (with ad or in + acc.)
deditio, –onis, f. surrender
adimo, –imere, –emi, –emptum to remove, take away, deny, preclude
obses, –idis, m./(f.) hostage; surety, pledge, guarantee
apparo, –are, –avi, –atum to prepare, make ready, organize
ver, –ris, n. spring

371 Leave a comment on paragraph 371 0  

372 Leave a comment on paragraph 372 0 POMPEY’S SOFT SIDES

373 Leave a comment on paragraph 373 0  

374 Leave a comment on paragraph 374 0 Est haec divina atque incredibilis virtus imperatoris: quid? ceterae, quas paulo ante commemorare coeperam, quantae atque quam multae sunt! Non enim bellandi virtus solum in summo ac perfecto imperatore quaerenda est, sed multae sunt artes eximiae huius administrae comitesque virtutis. Ac primum quanta innocentia debent esse imperatores! quanta deinde in omnibus rebus temperantia! quanta fide, quanta facilitate, quanto ingenio, quanta humanitate! quae breviter qualia sint in Cn. Pompeio consideremus: summa enim omnia sunt, Quirites, sed ea magis ex aliorum contentione quam ipsa per sese cognosci atque intellegi possunt.

375 Leave a comment on paragraph 375 0  

376 Leave a comment on paragraph 376 0  

377 Leave a comment on paragraph 377 0 Study Questions:

378 Leave a comment on paragraph 378 0 ▪    What noun has to be supplied with ceterae?

379 Leave a comment on paragraph 379 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of paulo.

380 Leave a comment on paragraph 380 0 ▪    In the sentence multae sunt artes eximiae huius administrae comitesque virtutis, which

381 Leave a comment on paragraph 381 0 words are in the nominative plural, which in the genitive singular?

382 Leave a comment on paragraph 382 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are innocentia, temperantia, fide, facilitate, ingenio and humanitate?

383 Leave a comment on paragraph 383 0 ▪    What effect does the repetition of quanta generate?

384 Leave a comment on paragraph 384 0 ▪    Why is the verb of the qualia-clause (sint) in the subjunctive?

385 Leave a comment on paragraph 385 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of consideremus.

386 Leave a comment on paragraph 386 0 ▪    Parse cognosci and intellegi.

387 Leave a comment on paragraph 387 0  

388 Leave a comment on paragraph 388 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Cicero has reached a pivotal moment in his argument: after discussion of Pompey’s prowess as military leader, he now focuses on his personal qualities more broadly. Discuss the stylistic devices he uses to emphasize their importance.

389 Leave a comment on paragraph 389 0  

390 Leave a comment on paragraph 390 0  

391 Leave a comment on paragraph 391 0 Discussion Point: Can you find contemporary parallels for Cicero’s claim that good military leaders ought to possess ‘soft qualities’ of the kind he discusses here, to complement strategic or martial excellence?

392 Leave a comment on paragraph 392 0  

393 Leave a comment on paragraph 393 0  

394 Leave a comment on paragraph 394 0  

paulum, –i, n. a small amount, little, a little bit
ars, –tis, f. skill, craftsmanship;
personal characteristic, quality
a systematic body of knowledge
eximius, –a, –um outstanding, exceptional; special, distinct
administra, –ae, f. a (female) assistant, ‘hand-maiden’
comes, –itis, m./f. companion, partner, associate
innocentia, –ae, f. freedom from guilt, innocence;
uprightness, integrity
temperantia, –ae, f. self-control, moderation, restraint
fides, –ei, f. trust, guarantee, promise, assurance;
good faith, honesty, honour;
trustworthiness, reliability
facilitas, –atis, f. facility, ease; good nature, indulgence
ingenium, -(i)i, n. natural disposition, natural abilities, talent
humanitas, –atis, f. human nature; humane character, kindness
qualis, –is, –e (interrogative) of what kind or quality
contentio, –onis, f. exercise, effort; contention, competition;
contrast, comparison

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396 Leave a comment on paragraph 396 0  

397 Leave a comment on paragraph 397 0 37: SPQR CONFIDENTIAL

398 Leave a comment on paragraph 398 0  

399 Leave a comment on paragraph 399 0 Quem enim imperatorem possumus ullo in numero putare, cuius in exercitu centuriatus veneant atque venierint? quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare, qui pecuniam ex aerario depromptam ad bellum administrandum aut propter cupiditatem provinciae magistratibus diviserit aut propter avaritiam Romae in quaestu reliquerit? Vestra admurmuratio facit, Quirites, ut agnoscere videamini, qui haec fecerint: ego autem nomino neminem; quare irasci mihi nemo poterit, nisi qui ante de se voluerit confiteri. Itaque propter hanc avaritiam imperatorum quantas calamitates, quocumque ventum est, nostri exercitus ferant, quis ignorat?

400 Leave a comment on paragraph 400 0  

401 Leave a comment on paragraph 401 0  

402 Leave a comment on paragraph 402 0 Study Questions:

403 Leave a comment on paragraph 403 0 ▪    Parse centuriatus.

404 Leave a comment on paragraph 404 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of veneant atque venierint.

405 Leave a comment on paragraph 405 0 ▪    What is the main verb of the sentence quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re

406 Leave a comment on paragraph 406 0 publica cogitare…? (NB: it needs to be supplied from the previous sentence.) What

407 Leave a comment on paragraph 407 0 construction does it govern?

408 Leave a comment on paragraph 408 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of diviserit and reliquerit.

409 Leave a comment on paragraph 409 0 ▪    What case is Romae?

410 Leave a comment on paragraph 410 0 ▪    Parse, and explain the syntax of, videamini.

411 Leave a comment on paragraph 411 0 ▪    Parse voluerit.

412 Leave a comment on paragraph 412 0 ▪    What weirdo form is ventum est?

413 Leave a comment on paragraph 413 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of ferant.

414 Leave a comment on paragraph 414 0 ▪    Vestra admurmuratio: how do you explain Cicero’s reference to unrest in the audience?

415 Leave a comment on paragraph 415 0 Did he anticipate this murmur of outraged assent when drafting the speech? Did he

416 Leave a comment on paragraph 416 0 add this bit after delivery, before disseminating the speech in writing – and how can

417 Leave a comment on paragraph 417 0 we be sure that the admurmuratio actually happened? What is the effect of having

418 Leave a comment on paragraph 418 0 a gesture to the original performance-context in the written version of the speech?

419 Leave a comment on paragraph 419 0 ▪    Can you think of contemporary figures that (don’t) live up to Cicero’s injunction

420 Leave a comment on paragraph 420 0 that public officials ought to magnum et amplum de re publica cogitare?

421 Leave a comment on paragraph 421 0  

422 Leave a comment on paragraph 422 0  

423 Leave a comment on paragraph 423 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero generate an atmosphere of outraged collusion with his audience?

424 Leave a comment on paragraph 424 0  

425 Leave a comment on paragraph 425 0  

426 Leave a comment on paragraph 426 0 Discussion Point: What are the mechanisms by which ancient and modern governments ensure the proper use of public funds by elected officials? What laws against bribery and embezzlement existed in ancient Rome – as compared to contemporary Britain?

427 Leave a comment on paragraph 427 0  

428 Leave a comment on paragraph 428 0  

429 Leave a comment on paragraph 429 0  

ullo in numero of any account/in any esteem
centuriatus, –us, m. the office of centurion
veneo, –ire, –ii (-itum) [used as passive of vendo:]
to be sold
Not to be confused with:
venio, venire, veni, ventum to come
amplus, –a, –um great, wide, spacious; glorious, magnificent
aerarium, –i, n. (Rome’s) public treasury
depromo, –ere, –prompsi, –promptum to draw out/forth, fetch
divido, –ere, –visi, –visum to separate, divide; distribute, apportion
quaestus, –us, m. acquisition, profit, advantage
pecuniam in quaestu relinquere to let out money at interest
admurmuratio, –onis, f. a murmuring, murmur (here: of

430 Leave a comment on paragraph 430 0 disapproval)

agnosco, –noscere, –novi, –notum to know well; declare, announce; recognize
nomino, –are, –avi, –atum to call by name, name; mention, accuse
irascor, irasci, iratus to be angry (at)
(most frequently, as here, with dative)
confiteor, confiteri, confessus to acknowledge, confess, avow

430 Leave a comment on paragraph 430 0  

431 Leave a comment on paragraph 431 0  

432 Leave a comment on paragraph 432 0 38: OF LOCUSTS AND LEECHES

433 Leave a comment on paragraph 433 0  

434 Leave a comment on paragraph 434 0 Itinera, quae per hosce annos in Italia per agros atque oppida civium Romanorum nostri imperatores fecerint, recordamini: tum facilius statuetis, quid apud exteras nationes fieri existimetis. Utrum plures arbitramini per hosce annos militum vestrorum armis hostium urbes an hibernis sociorum civitates esse deletas? Neque enim potest exercitum is continere imperator, qui se ipse non continet, neque severus esse in iudicando, qui alios in se severos esse iudices non vult.

435 Leave a comment on paragraph 435 0  

436 Leave a comment on paragraph 436 0  

437 Leave a comment on paragraph 437 0 Study Questions:

438 Leave a comment on paragraph 438 0 ▪    What kind of clause does quae introduce?

439 Leave a comment on paragraph 439 0 ▪    Parse recordamini and arbitramini.

440 Leave a comment on paragraph 440 0 ▪    Parse facilius.

441 Leave a comment on paragraph 441 0 ▪    Identify and explain the tenses and moods (plural!) of statuetis and existimetis.

442 Leave a comment on paragraph 442 0 ▪    What nouns (plural!) does plures agree with?

443 Leave a comment on paragraph 443 0 ▪    What do you call the stylistic device on display in in iudicando … iudices?

444 Leave a comment on paragraph 444 0 ▪    Why could hosting a Roman winter-quarter prove so disastrous for allied

445 Leave a comment on paragraph 445 0 communities? (Compare and contrast with modern-day protests by local

446 Leave a comment on paragraph 446 0 communities against the closure of military bases in their region.)

447 Leave a comment on paragraph 447 0 ▪    What is the timeframe of per hosce annos?

448 Leave a comment on paragraph 448 0  

449 Leave a comment on paragraph 449 0 Stylistic Appreciation: In the utrum… an… clause, how do the elements in the utrum-part match up with the elements in the an-part?

450 Leave a comment on paragraph 450 0  

451 Leave a comment on paragraph 451 0  

452 Leave a comment on paragraph 452 0 Discussion Point: How does Cicero construe the relationship between

453 Leave a comment on paragraph 453 0 ‘army’ and ‘general’ in this paragraph?

454 Leave a comment on paragraph 454 0  

455 Leave a comment on paragraph 455 0  

456 Leave a comment on paragraph 456 0  

457 Leave a comment on paragraph 457 0 iter, itineris, n.                                      journey, march

458 Leave a comment on paragraph 458 0 -ce (hosce)                                             a deictic particle, usually ‘enclitic’1

459 Leave a comment on paragraph 459 0  

recordor, –ari, –atus to think over, be mindful of, recollect
statuo, –uere, –ui, –utum to place, fix, stand; to establish, decide, uphold
exter, extera, exterum outside, external, foreign
existimo, –are, –avi, –atum to value, esteem; form an opinion, judge; think
utrum… an (introducing a disjunctive question, the second
alternative introduced by an): whether… or…
hiberna, –orum, n. pl. winter encampment, winter quarters
contineo, –inere, –inui, –entum to hold together, link, connect; keep within;
to keep under control

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497 Leave a comment on paragraph 497 0  

498 Leave a comment on paragraph 498 0 1     ‘enclitic’ is a linguistic term deriving from the Greek enklinein = ‘to lean on’; it is a word that does not stand on its own so gets attached to (‘leans on’) the preceding one.

499 Leave a comment on paragraph 499 0  

500 Leave a comment on paragraph 500 0  

501 Leave a comment on paragraph 501 0 39: POMPEY THE PEACEFUL, OR: IMPERIALISM WITH GLOVES

502 Leave a comment on paragraph 502 0  

503 Leave a comment on paragraph 503 0 Hic miramur hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris, cuius legiones sic in Asiam pervenerint, ut non modo manus tanti exercitus, sed ne vestigium quidem cuiquam pacato nocuisse dicatur? Iam vero quem ad modum milites hibernent cotidie sermones ac litterae perferuntur. Non modo ut sumptum faciat in militem nemini vis adfertur, sed ne cupienti quidem cuiquam permittitur. Hiemis enim, non avaritiae perfugium maiores nostri in sociorum atque amicorum tectis esse voluerunt.

504 Leave a comment on paragraph 504 0  

505 Leave a comment on paragraph 505 0  

506 Leave a comment on paragraph 506 0 Study Questions:

507 Leave a comment on paragraph 507 0 ▪    What is hic? (Hint: it’s not the demonstrative pronoun.)

508 Leave a comment on paragraph 508 0 ▪    What case, number and gender is cuius? To whom does it refer?

509 Leave a comment on paragraph 509 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of pervenerint.

510 Leave a comment on paragraph 510 0 ▪    What declension (and what gender ) are manus and exercitus? What case is manus in,

511 Leave a comment on paragraph 511 0 what case exercitus?

512 Leave a comment on paragraph 512 0 ▪    What type of clause does ut introduce?

513 Leave a comment on paragraph 513 0 ▪    What construction does dicatur govern?

514 Leave a comment on paragraph 514 0 ▪    What kind of clause is quem ad modum milites hibernent?

515 Leave a comment on paragraph 515 0 ▪    Both hiemis and avaritiae are genitives dependent on refugium: but what type of

516 Leave a comment on paragraph 516 0 genitive is hiemis, what type avaritiae?

517 Leave a comment on paragraph 517 0 ▪    How many indirect statements can you find in this section? Can you identify the

518 Leave a comment on paragraph 518 0 verbs introducing them, and find their subject accusatives?

519 Leave a comment on paragraph 519 0  

520 Leave a comment on paragraph 520 0  

521 Leave a comment on paragraph 521 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the rhetorical devices Cicero uses to emphasise the good behaviour of Pompey’s forces in Asia?

522 Leave a comment on paragraph 522 0  

523 Leave a comment on paragraph 523 0  

524 Leave a comment on paragraph 524 0 Discussion Point: Cicero ends this section by invoking the normative force of the ancestors. Are ‘older generations’ by definition ethically superior – in ancient Rome and elsewhere in history?

525 Leave a comment on paragraph 525 0  

526 Leave a comment on paragraph 526 0  

527 Leave a comment on paragraph 527 0  

miror, –ari, –atus to be surprised, amazed, bewildered; marvel
manus, –us, f. hand; in the plural: band, troop
ne… quidem not even [negating the enclosed word]
vestigium, -(i)i, n. footprint, track
pacatus, –a, –um tranquil, peaceable, disposed to peace
paco, –are, –avi, –atum to impose a settlement on, bring under

528 Leave a comment on paragraph 528 0 control, subdue

noceo, –ere, –ui, –itum (regularly with dative): to harm, injure
iam vero further, now, besides
quem ad modum/quemadmodum (interrogative) in what way? how?
(relative) in the manner in which
hiberno, –are, –avi, –atum to spend the winter (esp. of troops)
cotidie (adverb) every day, daily
sermo, –onis, m. speech, talk; conversation, dialogue; gossip
litterae, –arum, f. letters
perfero, –rre, pertuli, perlatum to carry/convey to, deliver; tolerate, endure
sumptus, –us, m. expenditure, outlay, expense
sumptum facere to expend money
hiems/hiemps, –mis, f. winter
avaritia, ae, f. greed, avarice, rapacity
perfugium, -(i)i, n. a place of refuge, shelter
tectum, –i, n. roof, ceiling; house, dwelling

528 Leave a comment on paragraph 528 0  

529 Leave a comment on paragraph 529 0  

530 Leave a comment on paragraph 530 0 40: NO SIGHT-SEEING OR SOUVENIRS FOR THE PERFECT GENERAL

531 Leave a comment on paragraph 531 0  

532 Leave a comment on paragraph 532 0 Age vero ceteris in rebus qua ille sit temperantia, considerate. Unde illam tantam celeritatem et tam incredibilem cursum inventum putatis? Non enim illum eximia vis remigum aut ars inaudita quaedam gubernandi aut venti aliqui novi tam celeriter in ultimas terras pertulerunt, sed eae res, quae ceteros remorari solent, non retardarunt: non avaritia ab instituto cursu ad praedam aliquam devocavit, non libido ad voluptatem, non amoenitas ad delectationem, non nobilitas urbis ad cognitionem, non denique labor ipse ad quietem; postremo signa et tabulas ceteraque ornamenta Graecorum oppidorum, quae ceteri tollenda esse arbitrantur, ea sibi ille ne visenda quidem existimavit.

533 Leave a comment on paragraph 533 0  

534 Leave a comment on paragraph 534 0  

535 Leave a comment on paragraph 535 0 Study Questions:

536 Leave a comment on paragraph 536 0 ▪    Can you think of any reasons why the imperative form Age is singular whilst

537 Leave a comment on paragraph 537 0 considerate (equally imperative) is plural?

538 Leave a comment on paragraph 538 0 ▪    What kind of clause is ceteris in rebus qua ille sit temperantia?

539 Leave a comment on paragraph 539 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is qua… temperantia?

540 Leave a comment on paragraph 540 0 ▪    What kind of clause does putatis introduce?

541 Leave a comment on paragraph 541 0 ▪    Parse retardarunt. What is its accusative object?

542 Leave a comment on paragraph 542 0 ▪    What do you think of Cicero’s use of synonyms such as voluptatem and delectationem?

543 Leave a comment on paragraph 543 0 Do they complement each other (and if so how) or do they give the text a bloated

544 Leave a comment on paragraph 544 0 wordiness?

545 Leave a comment on paragraph 545 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and infinitive of the indirect statement introduced

546 Leave a comment on paragraph 546 0 by arbitrantur.

547 Leave a comment on paragraph 547 0 ▪    Identify and explain the case of sibi.

548 Leave a comment on paragraph 548 0 ▪    How does the explanation of Pompey’s speed Cicero gives in this paragraph affect

549 Leave a comment on paragraph 549 0 our understanding of his previous praise of Pompey’s speed as a facet of his martial

550 Leave a comment on paragraph 550 0 prowess?

551 Leave a comment on paragraph 551 0  

552 Leave a comment on paragraph 552 0  

553 Leave a comment on paragraph 553 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Explore the rhetorical effect of negations in the passage.

554 Leave a comment on paragraph 554 0  

555 Leave a comment on paragraph 555 0  

556 Leave a comment on paragraph 556 0 Discussion Point: Describe and discuss the Romans’ attitude to Greece that comes through in this paragraph. How does Pompey differ from the ceteri?

557 Leave a comment on paragraph 557 0  

558 Leave a comment on paragraph 558 0  

559 Leave a comment on paragraph 559 0  

age (vero)! (a call for attention🙂 come!
unde from which place, whence, where
cursus, –us, m. the action of running; charge, onrush, motion,
movement, speed
journey, voyage, passage
invenio, –enire, –eni, –entum to encounter, meet; to find, discover, come by
eximius, –a, –um outstanding, exceptional, remarkable
remex, –igis, m. oarsman, rower
remoror, –ari, –atus to wait, linger, dally; delay, hold up
retardo, –are, –avi, –atum to hinder the progress of, hold up, inhibit
devoco, –are, –avi, –atum to call down; to call away, summon, divert
amoenitas, –atis, f. allurement, attraction, charm; pleasant spot
delectatio, –onis, f. pleasure, delight
nobilitas, –atis, f. renown, celebrity, distinction; nobility
cognitio, –onis, f. the act of getting to know, study, investigation
quies, –etis, f. rest, repose, relaxation
signum, –i, n. sign; (here) statue
tabula, –ae, f. board, plank, panel of wood; writing-tablet;
painting
tollo, –ere, sustuli, sublatum to pick up, carry off, remove, eliminate
ne… quidem not even
viso, –ere, –i to go and look, view, visit

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561 Leave a comment on paragraph 561 0  

562 Leave a comment on paragraph 562 0 41: SAINT POMPEY

563 Leave a comment on paragraph 563 0  

564 Leave a comment on paragraph 564 0 Itaque omnes nunc in iis locis Cn. Pompeium sicut aliquem non ex hac urbe missum, sed de caelo delapsum intuentur; nunc denique incipiunt credere, fuisse homines Romanos hac quondam continentia, quod iam nationibus exteris incredibile ac falso memoriae proditum videbatur; nunc imperii vestri splendor illis gentibus lucem adferre coepit; nunc intellegunt non sine causa maiores suos tum, cum ea temperantia magistratus habebamus, servire populo Romano quam imperare aliis maluisse. Iam vero ita faciles aditus ad eum privatorum, ita liberae querimoniae de aliorum iniuriis esse dicuntur, ut is qui dignitate principibus excellit, facilitate infimis par esse videatur.

565 Leave a comment on paragraph 565 0  

566 Leave a comment on paragraph 566 0  

567 Leave a comment on paragraph 567 0 Study Questions:

568 Leave a comment on paragraph 568 0 ▪    Parse intuentur.

569 Leave a comment on paragraph 569 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of the infinitives credere and fuisse.

570 Leave a comment on paragraph 570 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is hac … continentia?

571 Leave a comment on paragraph 571 0 ▪    What is the antecedent of quod?

572 Leave a comment on paragraph 572 0 ▪    Identify the words in the nominative in the clause quod iam nationibus exteris

573 Leave a comment on paragraph 573 0 incredibile ac falso memoriae proditum videbatur.

574 Leave a comment on paragraph 574 0 ▪    Parse falso and memoriae: why can’t falso modify memoriae?

575 Leave a comment on paragraph 575 0 ▪    Who is the subject implied in intellegunt?

576 Leave a comment on paragraph 576 0 ▪    Explain the tense of videbatur.

577 Leave a comment on paragraph 577 0 ▪    In the cum-clause cum ea temperantia magistratus habebamus: who is the subject? What

578 Leave a comment on paragraph 578 0 kind of ablative is ea temperantia? What case is magistratus?

579 Leave a comment on paragraph 579 0 ▪    What kind of ablatives are dignitate and facilitate?

580 Leave a comment on paragraph 580 0 ▪    What is the significance of the word delapsum? What impression does it give of

581 Leave a comment on paragraph 581 0 Pompey?

582 Leave a comment on paragraph 582 0 ▪    Who are the ancestors of the Eastern people who preferred to be subject to the

583 Leave a comment on paragraph 583 0 Romans to ruling others?

584 Leave a comment on paragraph 584 0 ▪    Discuss the way in which Cicero intertwines Pompey’s dignitas (‘social rank and

585 Leave a comment on paragraph 585 0 standing in the community’) and his facilitas (‘accessibility’) in the last sentence of

586 Leave a comment on paragraph 586 0 the paragraph: why does he stress facilitas so much?

587 Leave a comment on paragraph 587 0  

588 Leave a comment on paragraph 588 0  

589 Leave a comment on paragraph 589 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss how Cicero employs the temporal adverbs

590 Leave a comment on paragraph 590 0 quondam, iam and nunc in his argument.

591 Leave a comment on paragraph 591 0  

592 Leave a comment on paragraph 592 0  

593 Leave a comment on paragraph 593 0 Discussion Point: Can you think of contemporary public figures who combine dignitas with facilitas?

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596 Leave a comment on paragraph 596 0  

intueor, –eri, –itus to look at, watch; observe, see; consider;
to look upon, regard as
delabor, –bi, –psus to fall, drop; descend, glide down; slip
incipio, –ipere, –epi, –eptum to begin
falsus, –a, –um erroneous, untrue; incorrect, wrong
prodo, –ere, –idi, –itum (here) to hand down, transmit
splendor, –oris, m. brightness, brilliance, radiance; lustre; glory
coepi, –isse, –tum to begin
malo, –lle, –lui to wish rather, prefer
aditus, –us, m. approach, access, right of entry
privatus, –i, m. one who holds no public office; individual
querimonia, –ae, f. an expression of grievance, complaint, protest
iniuria, –ae, f. unlawful conduct, injustice, injury
excello, –ere, –ui to be pre-eminent, surpass, excel
facilitas, –atis, f. ease, facility, indulgence
infimus, –a, –um lowest in position, most undistinguished,
humblest
par, paris matching, equal, similar, like

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598 Leave a comment on paragraph 598 0  

599 Leave a comment on paragraph 599 0 42: PEACE FOR OUR TIME

600 Leave a comment on paragraph 600 0  

601 Leave a comment on paragraph 601 0 Iam quantum consilio, quantum dicendi gravitate et copia valeat, in quo ipso inest quaedam dignitas imperatoria, vos, Quirites, hoc ipso ex loco saepe cognovistis. Fidem vero eius quantam inter socios existimari putatis, quam hostes omnes omnium generum sanctissimam iudicarint? Humanitate iam tanta est, ut difficile dictu sit, utrum hostes magis virtutem eius pugnantes timuerint an mansuetudinem victi dilexerint. Et quisquam dubitabit quin huic hoc tantum bellum permittendum sit, qui ad omnia nostrae memoriae bella conficienda divino quodam consilio natus esse videatur?

602 Leave a comment on paragraph 602 0  

603 Leave a comment on paragraph 603 0  

604 Leave a comment on paragraph 604 0 Study Questions:

605 Leave a comment on paragraph 605 0 ▪    Why is valeat in the subjunctive?

606 Leave a comment on paragraph 606 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are consilio, gravitate and copia?

607 Leave a comment on paragraph 607 0 ▪    What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quam?

608 Leave a comment on paragraph 608 0 ▪    Parse generum.

609 Leave a comment on paragraph 609 0 ▪    Parse iudicarint and explain the mood.

610 Leave a comment on paragraph 610 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is humanitate?

611 Leave a comment on paragraph 611 0 ▪    What kind of clause is ut difficile dictu sit?

612 Leave a comment on paragraph 612 0 ▪    Parse dictu.

613 Leave a comment on paragraph 613 0 ▪    Parse pugnantes.

614 Leave a comment on paragraph 614 0 ▪    dicendi (in the first sentence) goes with both gravitate and copia; eius (in the

615 Leave a comment on paragraph 615 0 penultimate sentence) goes with both virtutem and mansuetudinem. What do you call

616 Leave a comment on paragraph 616 0 this phenomenon?

617 Leave a comment on paragraph 617 0 ▪    Explain the construction governed by the preposition ad (ad omnia nostrae memoriae

618 Leave a comment on paragraph 618 0 bella conficienda).

619 Leave a comment on paragraph 619 0 ▪    Why is videatur in the subjunctive?

620 Leave a comment on paragraph 620 0 ▪    What does Cicero mean when he says that public oratory comprises quaedam dignitas

621 Leave a comment on paragraph 621 0 imperatoria?

622 Leave a comment on paragraph 622 0  

623 Leave a comment on paragraph 623 0  

624 Leave a comment on paragraph 624 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the rhetorical effect of Cicero’s use of

625 Leave a comment on paragraph 625 0 quantus, –a, –um and tantus, –a, –um.

626 Leave a comment on paragraph 626 0  

627 Leave a comment on paragraph 627 0  

628 Leave a comment on paragraph 628 0 Discussion Point: Cicero argues that the secret of Pompey’s ability to bring wars to a successful conclusion derives in large part from his ‘soft qualities’

629 Leave a comment on paragraph 629 0 – the reliability of his ‘word’ (fides) and his human kindness (humanitas). Is that a principle that holds true elsewhere in history?

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631 Leave a comment on paragraph 631 0  

632 Leave a comment on paragraph 632 0  

gravitas, –atis, f. weight, heaviness; dignity, importance, gravity
copia, –ae, f. abundant power, wealth, riches, fullness,

633 Leave a comment on paragraph 633 0 copiousness, multitude, abundance

valeo, –ere, –ui, –itum to be strong; to have power, force, influence
to avail, prevail, be strong, effective
insum, inesse, infui to be in or upon; to be contained in, to be in,
to belong to, to appertain to
dignitas, –atis, f. dignity, greatness, grandeur, authority, rank
imperatorius, –a, –um of or belonging to a general
cognosco, –ere, cognovi, cognitum to become thoroughly acquainted with,
to perceive, understand
genus, –eris, n. birth, descent, origin; kind, type, character
sanctus, –a, –um sacred, inviolable
mansuetudo, –inis, f. mildness, gentleness, clemency
diligo, –ere, dilexi, dilectum to value/esteem highly, love
permitto, –ere, permisi, permissum to let go through; to give up, intrust,

634 Leave a comment on paragraph 634 0 surrender, commit; to give leave, let, allow,

635 Leave a comment on paragraph 635 0 suffer, grant, permit

quin (conjunction + subjunctive) that
memoria, –ae, f. memory, recollection
the period of recollection, time
nascor, nasci, natus sum to be born, to rise, to arise, to spring forth

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636 Leave a comment on paragraph 636 0  

637 Leave a comment on paragraph 637 0 43: RUMOUR AND RENOWN: POMPEY’S AUCTORITAS

638 Leave a comment on paragraph 638 0  

639 Leave a comment on paragraph 639 0 Et quoniam auctoritas quoque in bellis administrandis multum atque in imperio militari valet, certe nemini dubium est quin ea re idem ille imperator plurimum possit. Vehementer autem pertinere ad bella administranda, quid hostes, quid socii de imperatoribus nostris existiment, quis ignorat, cum sciamus homines in tantis rebus, ut aut contemnant aut metuant, aut oderint aut ament, opinione non minus et fama quam aliqua ratione certa commoveri? Quod igitur nomen umquam in orbe terrarum clarius fuit? cuius res gestae pares? de quo homine vos, id quod maxime facit auctoritatem, tanta et tam praeclara iudicia fecistis?

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641 Leave a comment on paragraph 641 0  

642 Leave a comment on paragraph 642 0 Study Questions:

643 Leave a comment on paragraph 643 0 ▪    Explain the grammar and syntax of multum and plurimum.

644 Leave a comment on paragraph 644 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is ea re?

645 Leave a comment on paragraph 645 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced

646 Leave a comment on paragraph 646 0 by ignorat.

647 Leave a comment on paragraph 647 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of existiment.

648 Leave a comment on paragraph 648 0 ▪    What kind of clause does ut introduce?

649 Leave a comment on paragraph 649 0 ▪    What kind of ablative are opinione, fama, and ratione?

650 Leave a comment on paragraph 650 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced

651 Leave a comment on paragraph 651 0 by sciamus.

652 Leave a comment on paragraph 652 0 ▪    Parse clarius.

653 Leave a comment on paragraph 653 0 ▪    What verb form has to be supplied in the clause cuius res gestae pares?

654 Leave a comment on paragraph 654 0 ▪    What is auctoritas? How does it differ from potestas or imperium? Is Cicero right to

655 Leave a comment on paragraph 655 0 claim that the reputation/prestige of the general matters in warfare?

656 Leave a comment on paragraph 656 0  

657 Leave a comment on paragraph 657 0  

658 Leave a comment on paragraph 658 0 Stylistic Appreciation: In the indirect statement dependent on sciamus Cicero switches into an ‘anthropological register’ with a statement about how humans behave in extreme situations. What is the rhetorical effect of this switch?

659 Leave a comment on paragraph 659 0  

660 Leave a comment on paragraph 660 0  

661 Leave a comment on paragraph 661 0 Discussion Point: Can you think of figures in your life who are formally invested with power of one sort or another because of their social role or office (= potestas) but have little or no auctoritas (‘commanding respect’) – or, conversely, of individuals who do not possess any formal powers but nevertheless command respect and obedience? How would you explain this?

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664 Leave a comment on paragraph 664 0  

quoniam since, seeing that, inasmuch as, because
quoque in the same way, too, likewise, no less
valeo, –ere, –ui, –itum to be powerful, be well, be potent; to have the

665 Leave a comment on paragraph 665 0 ability or power (with infinitive or internal

666 Leave a comment on paragraph 666 0 accusative)

dubius, –a, –um hesitant, undecided, doubtful, uncertain
quin (conjunction + subjunctive) that
possum, posse, potui to be able (to); to have power, influence, or

667 Leave a comment on paragraph 667 0 importance

vehementer (adverb) with great force, violently, firmly
pertineo, –ere, –ui to extend, reach; pertain to, be a concern
contemno, –nere, –psi, –ptum to regard with contempt, look down on; to

668 Leave a comment on paragraph 668 0 disregard

metuo, –ere, –i to fear, be afraid
odi, –isse to hate, dislike
opinio, –onis, f. opinion, belief; fancy, imagination
fama, –ae, f. news, tidings; rumour, hearsay;
public opinion; fame, glory, renown
commoveo, –overe, –ovi, –otum to move, shake, agitate; to interest, stimulate,

669 Leave a comment on paragraph 669 0 prompt, strike

clarus, –a, –um loud, sonorous; bright, shining; celebrated,

670 Leave a comment on paragraph 670 0 famous

par, paris matching, equal, similar, like
praeclarus, –a, –um very clear/bright; excellent, famous,

671 Leave a comment on paragraph 671 0 celebrated

671 Leave a comment on paragraph 671 0  

672 Leave a comment on paragraph 672 0  

673 Leave a comment on paragraph 673 0 44: CASE STUDY I: THE SOCIO-ECONOMICS OF POMPEY’S

674 Leave a comment on paragraph 674 0 AUCTORITAS

675 Leave a comment on paragraph 675 0  

676 Leave a comment on paragraph 676 0 An vero ullam usquam esse oram tam desertam putatis, quo non illius diei fama pervaserit, cum universus populus Romanus referto foro completisque omnibus templis, ex quibus hic locus conspici potest, unum sibi ad commune omnium gentium bellum Cn. Pompeium imperatorem depoposcit? Itaque, ut plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem, quantum auctoritas valeat in bello, ab eodem Cn. Pompeio omnium rerum egregiarum exempla sumantur: qui quo die a vobis maritimo bello praepositus est imperator, tanta repente vilitas annonae ex summa inopia et caritate rei frumentariae consecuta est unius hominis spe ac nomine, quantum vix in summa ubertate agrorum diuturna pax efficere potuisset.

677 Leave a comment on paragraph 677 0  

678 Leave a comment on paragraph 678 0  

679 Leave a comment on paragraph 679 0 Study Questions:

680 Leave a comment on paragraph 680 0  

681 Leave a comment on paragraph 681 0 ▪    oram: why does Cicero use this particular word as opposed to, say, regionem? What kind of implications does it have?

682 Leave a comment on paragraph 682 0 ▪    What kind of construction does putatis introduce?

683 Leave a comment on paragraph 683 0 ▪    Specify and explain the mood of pervaserit.

684 Leave a comment on paragraph 684 0 ▪    What kind of construction are referto foro and completis omnibus templis?

685 Leave a comment on paragraph 685 0 ▪    hic locus: what place in Rome is Cicero talking about?

686 Leave a comment on paragraph 686 0 ▪    What kind of clause is ut plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem?

687 Leave a comment on paragraph 687 0 ▪    What kind of clause is quantum auctoritas valeat in bello?

688 Leave a comment on paragraph 688 0 ▪    Specify and explain the mood of sumantur.

689 Leave a comment on paragraph 689 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of qui.

690 Leave a comment on paragraph 690 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is a vobis?

691 Leave a comment on paragraph 691 0 ▪    On what words does the genitive unius hominis depend and what kinds (! plural

692 Leave a comment on paragraph 692 0 intended) of genitive is it?

693 Leave a comment on paragraph 693 0 ▪    What kind of ablatives are spe and nomine?

694 Leave a comment on paragraph 694 0 ▪    Parse potuisset and explain the mood.

695 Leave a comment on paragraph 695 0 ▪    illius diei fama: how does Cicero convey the atmosphere in Rome on this day?

696 Leave a comment on paragraph 696 0  

697 Leave a comment on paragraph 697 0  

698 Leave a comment on paragraph 698 0  

an introducing direct questions with a notion of
surprise/indignation: ‘can it really be that…?’
usquam in any place, anywhere
pervado, –dere, –si, –sum to cross, traverse; pervade, penetrate
refercio, –cire, –si, –tum to cram or stuff full
forum, –i, n. the forum
compleo, –ere, –evi, –etum to fill, to occupy a space, throng
conspicio, –icere, –exi, –ectum to see, stare at, watch, discern
deposco, –scere, –posci to demand (peremptorily), ask for
confirmo, –are, –avi, –atum to strengthen, corroborate
egregius, –ia, –ium outstanding, excellent, splendid, pre-eminent
sumo, –mere, –mpsi, –mptum to take, put on, seize, get, procure
maritimus, –a, –um relating to the sea, naval
praepono, –onere, –osui, –ositum to place in front, set in authority over,
put in charge of
repente (adverb) without warning, suddenly; in an instant
vilitas, –atis, f. lowness of price, cheapness
annona, –ae, f. (annual) marketable output, produce;
the supply of corn; corn, food
inopia, –ae, f. lack of wealth, poverty; dearth;
shortage, scarcity
caritas, –atis, f. dearness, high price; love, affection, esteem
res frumentaria the corn-supply
consequor, –qui, –cutus to go or come after, to follow
vix (adverb) with difficulty, hardly, barely, just
ubertas, –atis, f. productiveness, fruitfulness, fertility,

699 Leave a comment on paragraph 699 0 abundance

699 Leave a comment on paragraph 699 0  

700 Leave a comment on paragraph 700 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the ways in which Cicero relates Pompey

701 Leave a comment on paragraph 701 0 to the Roman commonwealth (and the world as a whole) with reference to the comprehensive, superlative, and extreme expressions in the paragraph (e.g. ullam … oram, tam desertam, universus populus Romanus, omnibus templis, ad commune omnium gentium bellum, omnium rerum egregiarum exempla, tanta vilitas, ex summa inopia et caritate, in summa ubertate agrorum, diuturna pax).

702 Leave a comment on paragraph 702 0  

703 Leave a comment on paragraph 703 0  

704 Leave a comment on paragraph 704 0 Discussion Point: Explore the correlation between the appointment of Pompey as general in the war against the pirates and the ensuing drop in the price of corn in Rome. Why is this ‘cause-and-effect’ relationship between a political decision and its economic consequences such a brilliant illustration of Pompey’s auctoritas?

705 Leave a comment on paragraph 705 0  

706 Leave a comment on paragraph 706 0  

707 Leave a comment on paragraph 707 0 45: CASE STUDY II: POMPEY’S AUCTORITAS AND PSYCHO- LOGICAL WARFARE

708 Leave a comment on paragraph 708 0  

709 Leave a comment on paragraph 709 0 Iam accepta in Ponto calamitate ex eo proelio, de quo vos paulo ante invitus admonui, cum socii pertimuissent, hostium opes animique crevissent, satis firmum praesidium provincia non haberet, amisissetis Asiam, Quirites, nisi ad ipsum discrimen eius temporis divinitus Cn. Pompeium ad eas regiones fortuna populi Romani attulisset. Huius adventus et Mithridatem insolita inflatum victoria continuit et Tigranem magnis copiis minitantem Asiae retardavit. Et quisquam dubitabit, quid virtute perfecturus sit, qui tantum auctoritate perfecerit? aut quam facile imperio atque exercitu socios et vectigalia conservaturus sit, qui ipso nomine ac rumore defenderit?

710 Leave a comment on paragraph 710 0  

711 Leave a comment on paragraph 711 0  

712 Leave a comment on paragraph 712 0 Study Questions:

713 Leave a comment on paragraph 713 0 ▪    What kind of construction is accepta in Ponto calamitate?

714 Leave a comment on paragraph 714 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is paulo?

715 Leave a comment on paragraph 715 0 ▪    Parse pertimuissent, crevissent and haberet.

716 Leave a comment on paragraph 716 0 ▪    Specify and explain the mood and tense of amisissetis and attulisset.

717 Leave a comment on paragraph 717 0 ▪    What form is divinitus? What is the subject of the nisi-clause?

718 Leave a comment on paragraph 718 0 ▪    What kind of ablative is magnis copiis?

719 Leave a comment on paragraph 719 0 ▪    Parse minitantem.

720 Leave a comment on paragraph 720 0 ▪    What kind of clauses do quid and quam introduce?

721 Leave a comment on paragraph 721 0 ▪    What forms are perfecturus sit and conservaturus sit?

722 Leave a comment on paragraph 722 0 ▪    Specify and explain the mood of perfecerit and defenderit.

723 Leave a comment on paragraph 723 0 ▪    What are the accusative objects of defenderit?

724 Leave a comment on paragraph 724 0 ▪    Explore how Cicero represents the complementary impact of the virtus and the

725 Leave a comment on paragraph 725 0 auctoritas of Pompey.

726 Leave a comment on paragraph 726 0  

727 Leave a comment on paragraph 727 0  

728 Leave a comment on paragraph 728 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does the syntax of the first sentence reinforce

729 Leave a comment on paragraph 729 0 Cicero’s themes and rhetorical agenda?

730 Leave a comment on paragraph 730 0  

731 Leave a comment on paragraph 731 0  

732 Leave a comment on paragraph 732 0 Discussion Point: What entity/force does Cicero refer to with fortuna populi

733 Leave a comment on paragraph 733 0 Romani?

734 Leave a comment on paragraph 734 0  

735 Leave a comment on paragraph 735 0  

736 Leave a comment on paragraph 736 0  

accipio, –ipere, –epi, –eptum to receive, acquire, get
proelium, -(i)i, n. battle
paulum, –i, n. a small amount, little, a little bit
invitus, –a, –um unwilling, reluctant
admoneo, –ere, –ui, –itum to give a reminder to, to remind (of or that)
pertimesco, –escere, –ui to become very scared, take excessive fright
ops, opis, f. power, ability
plural: domination, influence, resources
animus, –i, m. mind; courage, spirit, morale
cresco, –ere, crevi, cretum to be born, arise; develop, grow, increase
amitto, –ittere, –isi, –issum to send away, dismiss; to forfeit, lose
discrimen, –inis, n. a separating line, a point in which things differ; a

737 Leave a comment on paragraph 737 0 decisive stage, critical point, crisis

divinitus (adverb) by divine agency or inspiration, providentially
insolitus, –a, –um unusual, unfamiliar
inflo, –are, –avi, –atum to fill with air, puff out, inflate; cause to swell
minitor, –ari, –atus (+ dative) to threaten (somebody/something)
retardo, –are, –avi, –atum to hinder the progress of, inhibit
dubito, –are, –avi, –atum to be in doubt, be uncertain
vectigal, –alis, n. revenue
rumor, –oris, m. noise, rumour, reputation, esteem

737 Leave a comment on paragraph 737 0  

738 Leave a comment on paragraph 738 0  

739 Leave a comment on paragraph 739 0 46: AUCTORITAS SUPREME

740 Leave a comment on paragraph 740 0  

741 Leave a comment on paragraph 741 0 Age vero illa res quantam declarat eiusdem hominis apud hostes populi Romani auctoritatem, quod ex locis tam longinquis tamque diversis tam brevi tempore omnes huic se uni dediderunt: quod a communi Cretensium legati, cum in eorum insula noster imperator exercitusque esset, ad Cn. Pompeium in ultimas prope terras venerunt eique se omnes Cretensium civitates dedere velle dixerunt! Quid? idem iste Mithridates nonne ad eundem Cn. Pompeium legatum usque in Hispaniam misit? eum quem Pompeius legatum semper iudicavit, ii quibus erat molestum ad eum potissimum esse missum, speculatorem quam legatum iudicari maluerunt. Potestis igitur iam constituere, Quirites, hanc auctoritatem, multis postea rebus gestis magnisque vestris iudiciis amplificatam, quantum apud illos reges, quantum apud exteras nationes valituram esse existimetis.

742 Leave a comment on paragraph 742 0  

743 Leave a comment on paragraph 743 0  

744 Leave a comment on paragraph 744 0 Study Questions:

745 Leave a comment on paragraph 745 0 ▪    What word does quantam agree with?

746 Leave a comment on paragraph 746 0 ▪    Parse communi and legati.

747 Leave a comment on paragraph 747 0 ▪    Who is the noster imperator?

748 Leave a comment on paragraph 748 0 ▪    Which words does the –que after ei connect?

749 Leave a comment on paragraph 749 0 ▪    Parse ei.

750 Leave a comment on paragraph 750 0 ▪    Explain the syntax of se and omnes … civitates.

751 Leave a comment on paragraph 751 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement dependent

752 Leave a comment on paragraph 752 0 on existimetis.

753 Leave a comment on paragraph 753 0  

754 Leave a comment on paragraph 754 0  

755 Leave a comment on paragraph 755 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the stylistic devices Cicero uses to highlight Pompey’s auctoritas?

756 Leave a comment on paragraph 756 0  

757 Leave a comment on paragraph 757 0  

758 Leave a comment on paragraph 758 0 Discussion Point: If you were a member of one of Rome’s established senatorial families, how would you react to Cicero’s rhetoric in this paragraph?

759 Leave a comment on paragraph 759 0  

760 Leave a comment on paragraph 760 0  

761 Leave a comment on paragraph 761 0  

declaro, –are, –avi, –atum to make known, declare, tell, reveal; testify to, show
dedo, –ere, –idi, –itum to yield possession of, give up, surrender
commune, –is, n. property of rights held in common;

762 Leave a comment on paragraph 762 0 commonwealth, state, collective body

usque (ad/in) (adverb) all the way (to), right up (to), as far (as)
molestus, –a, –um troublesome, annoying, vexing
potissimum (adverb) especially, above all
speculator, –oris, m. a spy
constituo, –uere, –ui, –utum to set up, establish, locate; arrange, agree on
valeo, –ere, –ui, –itum to have strength, be powerful, have weight

762 Leave a comment on paragraph 762 0  

763 Leave a comment on paragraph 763 0  

764 Leave a comment on paragraph 764 0 47: FELICITAS, OR HOW NOT TO ‘SULL(A)Y’ POMPEY

765 Leave a comment on paragraph 765 0  

766 Leave a comment on paragraph 766 0 Reliquum est ut de felicitate, quam praestare de se ipso nemo potest, meminisse et commemorare de altero possumus, sicut aequum est homines de potestate deorum, timide et pauca dicamus. Ego enim sic existimo, Maximo, Marcello, Scipioni, Mario, et ceteris magnis imperatoribus non solum propter virtutem, sed etiam propter fortunam saepius imperia mandata atque exercitus esse commissos. Fuit enim profecto quibusdam summis viris quaedam ad amplitudinem et ad gloriam et ad res magnas bene gerendas divinitus adiuncta fortuna. De huius autem hominis felicitate, de quo nunc agimus, hac utar moderatione dicendi, non ut in illius potestate fortunam positam esse dicam, sed ut praeterita meminisse, reliqua sperare videamur, ne aut invisa dis immortalibus oratio nostra aut ingrata esse videatur.

767 Leave a comment on paragraph 767 0  

768 Leave a comment on paragraph 768 0  

769 Leave a comment on paragraph 769 0 Study Questions:

770 Leave a comment on paragraph 770 0 ▪    What is the object of meminisse and commemorare?

771 Leave a comment on paragraph 771 0 ▪    Identify the subject accusative and infinitive of the indirect statement introduced

772 Leave a comment on paragraph 772 0 by existimo.

773 Leave a comment on paragraph 773 0 ▪    What is missing from the clause sicut aequum est homines de potestate deorum and has

774 Leave a comment on paragraph 774 0 to be supplied from the surrounding text?

775 Leave a comment on paragraph 775 0 ▪    Which name is conspicuously absent from Cicero’s list of generals who enjoyed

776 Leave a comment on paragraph 776 0 outstanding fortuna?

777 Leave a comment on paragraph 777 0 ▪    Parse saepius.

778 Leave a comment on paragraph 778 0 ▪    What noun does quaedam modify? What is the rhetorical effect of its placement in

779 Leave a comment on paragraph 779 0 the sentence?

780 Leave a comment on paragraph 780 0  

781 Leave a comment on paragraph 781 0  

782 Leave a comment on paragraph 782 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Cicero declares that he wishes to speak about Pompey’s felicitas timide et pauca’. What are the rhetorical ploys by which he puts this principle into practice?

783 Leave a comment on paragraph 783 0  

784 Leave a comment on paragraph 784 0  

785 Leave a comment on paragraph 785 0 Discussion Point: felicitas indicates divine support. Can you think of contemporary politicians who appeal to the supernatural sphere as a source of support in governance?

786 Leave a comment on paragraph 786 0  

787 Leave a comment on paragraph 787 0  

788 Leave a comment on paragraph 788 0  

reliquus, –qua, –quum the rest of, the remaining
  reliquum est for the rest
praesto, –are, –iti (-avi), –atum (-itum) to be outstanding/superior, excel; to make

789 Leave a comment on paragraph 789 0 available, furnish, supply; vouch for

sicut   in the same way as, just as… (so)…
timide (adverb) apprehensively, nervously
propter (preposition + accusative) because of, on account of, thanks to
mando, –are, –avi, –atum to hand over, deliver, entrust
committo, –ittere, –isi, –issum to join, engage; entrust to; bring about
profecto (adverb) without question, undoubtedly, assuredly
amplitudo, –inis, f. size, bulk, extent; distinction, eminence,

790 Leave a comment on paragraph 790 0 prestige

divinitus by divine agency or inspiration
adiungo, –gere, –xi, –ctum to connect, link up, attach to, assign
ago, agere, egi, actum to drive
agere de to speak about, treat, discuss
utor, uti, usus + ablative to use, employ
moderatio, –onis, f. moderation, restraint
praeteritus, –a, –um that has occurred, been done; past, bygone
invisus, –a, –um hateful, odious, disliked, unpopular
ingratus, –a, –um ungrateful, thankless, unappreciative;
  + dative unwelcome to, displeasing to, unpopular

791 Leave a comment on paragraph 791 0 with

791 Leave a comment on paragraph 791 0  

792 Leave a comment on paragraph 792 0  

793 Leave a comment on paragraph 793 0 48: THE DARLING OF THE GODS

794 Leave a comment on paragraph 794 0  

795 Leave a comment on paragraph 795 0 itaque non sum praedicaturus, quantas ille res domi militiae, terra marique, quantaque felicitate gesserit, ut eius semper voluntatibus non modo cives adsenserint, socii obtemperarint, hostes oboedierint, sed etiam venti tempestatesque obsecundarint: hoc brevissime dicam, neminem umquam tam impudentem fuisse, qui ab dis immortalibus tot et tantas res tacitus auderet optare, quot et quantas di immortales ad Cn. Pompeium detulerunt: quod ut illi proprium ac perpetuum sit, Quirites, cum communis salutis atque imperii, tum ipsius hominis causa, sicuti facitis, velle et optare debetis.

796 Leave a comment on paragraph 796 0  

797 Leave a comment on paragraph 797 0  

798 Leave a comment on paragraph 798 0 Study Questions:

799 Leave a comment on paragraph 799 0  

800 Leave a comment on paragraph 800 0 ▪    non sum praedicaturus… – What is the technical term for this literary technique, and what is the effect of employing it here?

801 Leave a comment on paragraph 801 0 ▪    Parse domi militiae and terra marique.

802 Leave a comment on paragraph 802 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of gesserit.

803 Leave a comment on paragraph 803 0 ▪    Parse obtemperarint and obsecundarint.

804 Leave a comment on paragraph 804 0 ▪    Identify and explain the mood of auderet.

805 Leave a comment on paragraph 805 0 ▪    How does quod ut illi proprium ac perpetuum sit fit into the syntax of the sentence?

806 Leave a comment on paragraph 806 0  

807 Leave a comment on paragraph 807 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Explore the ways in which Cicero hints at a quasi- divine status for Pompey without actually turning him into a god.

808 Leave a comment on paragraph 808 0  

809 Leave a comment on paragraph 809 0  

810 Leave a comment on paragraph 810 0 Discussion Point: What relationship between Pompey and the gods does

811 Leave a comment on paragraph 811 0 Cicero posit in this paragraph?

812 Leave a comment on paragraph 812 0  

813 Leave a comment on paragraph 813 0  

814 Leave a comment on paragraph 814 0  

praedico, –are, –avi, –atum to make known, proclaim, declare
voluntas, –atis, f. will, intention, disposition
adsentio, –tire, –si, –sum to agree, assent, approve
obtempero, –are, –avi, –atum to be submissive to, comply with, obey
oboedio, –ire, –ivi/-ii, –itum to obey, submit to
obsecundo, –are, –avi, –atum to act in compliance or support, fall in with
impudens, –ntis shameless, impudent, brazen
tacitus, –a, –um silent, quiet, secret
audeo, –ere, –sus to dare, venture
opto, –are, –avi, –atum to wish, desire, pray for
defero, –rre, detuli, delatum to carry, convey, bring; transfer; confer,

815 Leave a comment on paragraph 815 0 grant to

proprius, –a, –um belonging, one’s own, one’s own property
perpetuus, –a, –um continuous, permanent
causa (preposition + genitive) because of, on account of

815 Leave a comment on paragraph 815 0  

816 Leave a comment on paragraph 816 0  

817 Leave a comment on paragraph 817 0 49: SUMMING UP

818 Leave a comment on paragraph 818 0  

819 Leave a comment on paragraph 819 0 Quare cum et bellum sit ita necessarium, ut neglegi non possit, ita magnum, ut accuratissime sit administrandum, et cum ei imperatorem praeficere possitis, in quo sit eximia belli scientia, singularis virtus, clarissima auctoritas, egregia fortuna, dubitatis, Quirites, quin hoc tantum boni, quod vobis ab dis immortalibus oblatum et datum est, in rem publicam conservandam atque amplificandam conferatis?

820 Leave a comment on paragraph 820 0  

821 Leave a comment on paragraph 821 0  

822 Leave a comment on paragraph 822 0 Study Questions:

823 Leave a comment on paragraph 823 0 ▪    What kind of ut-clause are ut neglegi non possit and ut accuratissime sit administrandum?

824 Leave a comment on paragraph 824 0 ▪    Parse ei. What does it refer back to?

825 Leave a comment on paragraph 825 0 ▪    Explain the subjunctive (sit) in the relative clause introduced by in quo.

826 Leave a comment on paragraph 826 0 ▪    What kind of genitive is boni?

827 Leave a comment on paragraph 827 0  

828 Leave a comment on paragraph 828 0 Stylistic Appreciation: What are the rhetorical devices Cicero uses to render his summing-up both clear and memorable?

829 Leave a comment on paragraph 829 0  

830 Leave a comment on paragraph 830 0  

831 Leave a comment on paragraph 831 0 Discussion Point: What relationship does Cicero construe between the gods and the Roman citizens?

832 Leave a comment on paragraph 832 0  

833 Leave a comment on paragraph 833 0  

834 Leave a comment on paragraph 834 0  

neglego, –gere, –xi, –ctum to disregard, ignore, do nothing about
accuratus, –a, –um carefully performed or prepared, meticulous
praeficio, –icere, –eci, –ectum to put in charge (of), set over
eximius, –a, –um outstanding, exceptional, remarkable, special
singularis, –is, –e alone, peculiar, special; remarkable, unusual
clarus, –a, –um sonorous; bright, shining; celebrated, famous
egregius, –a, –um outstanding, excellent, splendid
tantum, –i, n. (pronoun) such a quantity, so much
bonum, –i, n. any good, boon, advantage, blessing
offero, –rre, obtuli, oblatum to put in the path of, provide, supply, offer
amplifico, –are, –avi, –atum to enlarge, increase; extol, exalt, magnify
confero, –rre, contuli, collatum to carry, convey; direct, aim; confer, bestow;
to bring together; compare
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